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The Builder Magazine 

December 1923 - Volume IX - Number 12 



Master of Evans Lodge 

Cheetham, New Mexico 

WHY ALL THIS SECRECY? - By Bro. Arthur C. Parker, New York 

Geo. W. Warvelle, Illinois 



Baird, District of Columbia 

THE STUDY CLUB - Chapters of Masonic History - Part VIII, York Roll, No. 1, A 
Specimen of the Old Charges. - By Bro. H. L. Haywood 

Christmas in the Lodge 
The American Peace Award 

A President Truly Masonic 
The Frontispiece: An Explanation. 


Early Freemasonry in New York State 
A Notable Departure in Masonic Publishing 

Lodge, Gild, Fraternity, Craft. 

Religious Affiliations of President and Mrs. Coolidge 
"Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion". 
"Graded Lessons in Masonic History" 

Commander of American Legion a Mason 
When Was Roman Church Founded 


King Solomon and the Iron Worker 

Sketches of Hinton and Wolfstieg 


— o — 

Patriotism - As Interpreted by Freemasonry 

By the Worshipful Master of Evans Lodge, No. 524, Evanston, 111. 

No word has come to headquarters during the past year of a finer or more constructive 
piece of Masonic educational work than that completed by Evans Lodge, of Evanston, 
Illinois, under the direction of its Educational Committee. Once a month the 
Worshipful Master delivered an address for his lodge on topics in this order: 

Initiation, Fraternity, Toleration, Faith, Truth, Charity, Morality, Patriotism, 
Symbolism, Philosophy, Happiness and Immortality. Each lecture was beautifully 
printed and a copy given to each brother in attendance on the night of its delivery, 
thereby enabling him to read, reread and inwardly digest at his leisure what he had 
heard. The interest developed by the course was such that at its end the Educational 
Committee printed the series in book form, in a gold-embossed volume of 108 pages 
8x11 inches, in a limited edition of six hundred copies, to be ready for distribution 
Dec. 15, and to sell at $5.00 net. The volume is so beautifully printed and bound that 
there is little likelihood of any profits accruing, but if so the money will be used to 
carry forward the work of the Educational Committee. It is a matter of regret that we 
are not permitted to give adequate credit here to the Worshipful Master himself, 
whose desire to sink his identity in his work is a rare example of Masonic modesty. 
The lecture printed here is republished by his permission. Brethren desiring to make 
use of it in lodge should address the Educational Committee, Evans Lodge, No. 524, 
Evanston, Illinois. 

Breathes there the man with soul so dead 
Who never to himself hath said, 

This is my own, my native land; 

Whose heart hath neer within him burned, 
As home his footsteps he hath turned 
From wandering on a foreign strand? 

If such there breathes, go mark him well. 
For him no minstrel raptures swell; 

High though his titles, proud his name, 
Boundless his wealth as wish can claim, 
Despite those titles, power and pelf, 

The wretch, concentered all in self, 
Living, shall forfeit fair renown 
And, doubly dying, shall go down 
To the vile dust from whence he sprung, 
Unwept, unhonoured and unsung. 

-Sir Walter Scott. 

WHAT is patriotism - this almost universal instinct for which more men have given 
their lives than for any other cause, and which counts more martyrs than even religion 
itself - this potent sentiment which has produced so great and splendid deeds of heroic 
bravery and of unselfish devotion - which has inspired art, and stimulated literature, 
and furthered science - which has fostered liberty and won independence, and 
advanced civilization - and which on the other hand has sometimes been 
misunderstood and perverted and made the excuse for brutal excesses and arbitrary 

The dictionary tells us that a patriot is "one whose ruling passion is the love of his 
country" and that patriotism is "love and zeal for one's country." 

But patriotism is no virtue when it dwarfs the sympathies and narrows the soul's 
horizon; it is simply bigotry and selfishness, and becomes a menace to the world. 
John Paul Jones, Freemason, and America's first naval hero, called himself "a citizen 
of the world," and though a Scotchman by birth, fought for the Colonies because he 
thought they stood for a wider patriotism than had obtained before. He stood for 
America because he regarded America as standing for man as man. His enthusiasm 
was for the human race rather than for a nation. Love of country is a noble passion, 
but not as noble as the love of man. 

Patriotism must be founded on great principles and supported by great virtues. It 
involves duties as well as privileges, and these duties rise in connection with the 
domestic relations of the citizen to his country as well as in all that concerns the 
attitude of the country towards foreign nations. In both cases the idea of patriotism 
involves that of personal sacrifice. Our obligations do not end with obedience to the 
laws and the payment of taxes. These things are compulsory and involuntary 
evidence of our love of country, since the police insist on the one, and the Treasury 
takes good care of the other. But we give a free and additional proof of patriotism in 
taking our full share of public work and responsibility, including the performance of 
those municipal obligations on the due fulfilment of which the comfort, the health, 
and the lives of the community so largely depend. 

It is not true to say that one man, however little, must not be sacrificed to another, 
however great, to a majority, or to all men. That is not only a fallacy, but a most 
dangerous one. Often one man and many men must be sacrificed, in the ordinary 
sense of the term, to the interest of the many. It is a comfortable fallacy to the selfish 
- for if they cannot, by the law of justice, be sacrificed for the common good, then 
their country has no right to demand of them self-sacrifice; and he is a fool who lays 
down his life, or sacrifices his estate, or even his luxuries, to insure the safety or 
prosperity of his country. According to that doctrine, Curtius was a fool, and 
Leonidas an idiot; and to die for one's country is no longer beautiful and glorious, but 
a mere absurdity. Then it is no longer to be asked that the common soldier shall 
receive in his bosom the sword or bayonet-thrust which otherwise would let out the 
life of the great commander on whose fate hang the liberties of his country, and the 
welfare of millions yet unborn. 

On the contrary, it is certain that necessity rules in all the affairs of men, and that the 
interest and even the life of one man must often be sacrificed to the interest and 
welfare of his country. Some must ever lead the forlorn hope: the missionary must go 
among savages, bearing his life in his hands; the physician must expose himself to the 
pestilence for the sake of others; the sailor, in the frail boat upon the wide ocean, 
escaped from the foundering or burning ship, must step calmly into the hungry 
waters, if the lives of the passengers can be saved only by the sacrifice of his own; the 
pilot must stand firm at the wheel, and let the flames scorch away his own life to 
insure the common safety of those whom the doomed vessel bears. 

Has any philosopher failed to discover that his country is more to be valued, and 
higher and holier far than mother or father or any ancestor, and more to be regarded in 
the eyes of men of understanding? Also to be soothed, and gently and reverently 
entreated when angry, even more than a father, and if not persuaded, obeyed? And 
when we are punished by her, whether with imprisonment or stripes, the punishment 
is to be endured in silence; and if she leads us to wounds or death in battle, thither we 
follow as is right; neither may anyone yield or retreat or leave his rank, but whether in 
battle or in a court of law, or in any other place; he must do what his city and his 
country order him; or he must change their view of what is just: and if he may do no 
violence to his father or mother, much less may he do violence to his country. 

Our philosophy of patriotism is that each nation has, by the gift of God, something 
unique, particular and precious; something not to be found anywhere else, and 
therefore it has a gift to make to universal humanity. That it may make that gift it 
should be free to develop what is most unique and precious in its life. 

True patriotism is a thinking patriotism. It is a sacred thing. No noise, however 
great, no shouts, however thrilling, no hurrahs, however enthusiastic, no blare of 
brass bands, no flaming of fireworks, no flaunting flags, no strenuous stump 
speeches, can begin to tell what true and genuine patriotism really is, for it lies too 
deep for all of these. True patriotism is a great, calm, altogether lovely and holy 
thing, that worships God and loves its fellow men. It is a consecration to high ideals; 
it is the hallowing of a man's whole soul in a holy cause. 

To toil, to incur hazard, to die, for one's country, without hope of pay or reward, is the 
noblest inspiration and ambition of a free man. 


Americanism is defined by the Declaration of Independence, which, basing its 
doctrine upon the "Laws of Nature and of Nature's God," asserts the rights of man in 
one immortal sentence: 

"We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal; that they are 
endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, 
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights, governments are 
instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; 
that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the 
right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its 
foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form as to them shall 
seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness." 

We are the freest government on the face of the earth. Our strength rests in our 
patriotism. Anarchy flees before patriotism. Peace and order and security and liberty 
are safe so long as love of country bums in the hearts of the people. 

How can we justify our love of our own land as over against those who hold that all 
patriotism is provincial, if not pernicious? Only in this way: each nation, each race 
has a genius of its own, and by that fact a contribution to make and a service to render 
to the total of humanity. Judea was no larger than Illinois, and yet it gave to the race 
its loftiest and truest religion, and the strongest, whitest, sweetest soul the earth has 
known. Greece was a tiny land, girt about by violet seas, but it added unmeasurable 
wealth of art, drama and philosophy to the world. So of Rome. And thus we might 
call the roll of races and nations, asking of each what it had or has to give of beauty 
and of truth to mankind. Even so, our country has a genius unique, particular and 
peculiar, and by that token a service to render to the universal life of humanity. What 

is that service if it be not to show, not only that "government of the people, by the 
people, for the people shall not perish from the earth," but that it is the highest ideal 
of government, and that it makes for the greatest happiness of man, alike in private 
nobility and public welfare? 

Of that genius and service our flag is the emblem and prophecy, and loyalty to that 
emblem implies devotion to that service. Our field is the world, but our solicitude is 
our own country - that it may the better make its unique and priceless contribution to 
the universal good. Thus, with due reverence for other nations, by loyalty to our own 
flag we best serve our race. 

No country can ever be wholly without men of the old heroic strain and stamp, whose 
word no man will dare to doubt, whose virtue shines resplendent in all calamities and 
reverses and amid all temptations, and whose honour scintillates and glitters as purely 
and perfectly as the diamond - men who are not wholly the slaves of the material 
occupations and pleasure of life, wholly engrossed in trade, in the breeding of cattle, 
in the framing and enforcing of revenue regulations, in the chicanery of the law, the 
objects of political envy, in the base trade of the lower literature or in the heartless, 
hollow vanities of an eternal dissipation. Every generation, in every country, will 
bequeath to those who succeed it splendid examples and great images of the dead, to 
be admired and imitated; there were such among the Romans, under the basest 
Emperors; such in England when the Long Parliament ruled; such in France during its 
saturnalia of irreligion and murder, and some such have made the annals of America 

The famous examples of the Past of our nation, the memories and immortal thoughts 
of our great and wise thinkers, statesmen and heroes, are the invaluable legacy of that 
Past to the Present and Future. They are our chief elements of material wealth, as 
they are of national manliness, heroism, glory, prosperity and immortal renown. 


It must be understood by every Freemason in these United States that Freemasonry is 
an institution that is vital in its relationship to American destiny. An understanding of 
this will involve only such study as will enable any Freemason intelligibly to state the 
analogy between Freemasonry and Americanism. His life and example should evince 
the fact that to be a good Freemason is to be a good American. For Americanism, we 
are emboldened to say, is the latter day effort to incarnate our age-old Masonic 
idealism in law for the governing of an entire nation. 

It was Freemasonry in a preeminent degree which so tenderly and yet so resolutely 
cradled democracy in the first eventful years of America's history. In confirmation of 
this I need but call attention to a few of the many illustrious names written alike on 
the pages of Masonic records and American history - Washington, Franklin and 

A Past Grand Master of the District of Columbia numbers twenty-three Freemasons 
among those patriots who signed the Declaration of Independence. The same honour 
roll carries the names of eighteen former Presidents of our country. 

Benjamin Franklin, a Grand Master of Pennsylvania, both at home and abroad did 
more by his wisdom and diplomatic skill than any other one Freemason, Washington 
alone excepted, to place Old Glory high among the nations. He helped make both the 
Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, and is a signer of both documents. 

While as a nation we pay homage to the memory of Washington, it is peculiarly 
fitting that as Freemasons we meet in our various Masonic homes and in solemn 
quietude around our altars contemplate the virtues of this great man and Mason, this 
great character who exemplified every virtue which Freemasonry inculcates. 

We fail to grasp the full significance of the noble record of those illustrious brethren 
of our Order who took such prominent parts in Revolutionary days, if we see in it 
only a source of pride and gratification. It is all this but much more: for every page 
imposes duty, obligation, responsibility. If it be true, as the record seems to teach, 

that American nationality was largely brought about by Freemasons, and that to this 
end the best energies of the Craft were devoted in the trying times of the Revolution; 
if our predecessors gave "their lives, their fortunes and their sacred honour" to start 
the Republic on its glorious career, surely we can best prove true to the traditions of 
American Freemasonry by continuing the work which they began. Our advantages, if 
not our opportunities, are greater than theirs. The feeble Fraternity of that day has 
become a powerful Order now - it can exercise a mighty leverage for civic progress 
and reform. 

The highest lesson taught us as a Craft by the Freemasons of the American 
Revolution is: To place patriotism above partisanship, to preserve and extend the free 
institutions of the Republic, to maintain the honour and dignity of the nation at home 
and abroad, 

and thus to realize the lofty ideals of our eighteenth century brethren, bequeathing 
them as a priceless heritage to generations yet unborn. 

The most sacred symbol of any people is its flag, and in an hour of crisis and destiny 
the old emblem is instinct with all lofty and holy meanings. Here is the soul of the 
nation, the outward and visible sign of its invisible and invincible spirit. The very 
body and blood of a free people are in the folds of its flag, and when it is unfuried the 
soul of the nation stands erect. 

Freemasons, who teach so much by symbols, point with pride to the part of 
Freemasonry in establishing the greatest symbol known among nations - the stars and 
stripes so fondly called "Old Glory." 

Just what suggested to Washington the stars and stripes can never be known because 
he never referred to the matter in any way. On Jan. 1, 1776, when the new army was 
organized, a "Union" flag was raised which gave the British much joy because it was, 
at that time, the flag of loyal India. Whether Washington knew this to be a fact or 
not, this Cambridge flag was his idea and was raised on his own initiative and 
authority. Later, in Philadelphia, with independence in sight, he knew the flag would 
have to be changed and made a drawing of its revision. He was taken to Betsy Ross, 

who was the wife of a Master Mason, and who made the first flag with white stars on 
a blue field, in addition to the thirteen red and white stripes. These stars were 
arranged ten in a circle, with an eleventh star as a point in the center. Evidence shows 
that in this change Washington again acted on his own initiative. 

On June 14, 1777, Congress officially adopted this flag, changing the number of stars 
to thirteen and arranging them in a circle. The wording of this famous resolution is as 

"Resolved, that the Flag of the United States be thirteen stripes alternate red and 
white, that the Union be thirteen stars white in a blue field, representing a new 

In 1794 two stars were added and their arrangement changed to the form of an oblong 

In 1 8 1 8 the number of stars had increased to twenty and their arrangement took the 
form of a five-pointed star, such being the array used by the Military Department for 
many years, while the Navy continued in the form of the oblong square of 1794. 

At this time Congress made provision for the future by authorizing a new star to be 
added to the flag for each new State admitted to the Union, to be inserted on the July 
Fourth following its admission. 

Finally, by agreement, the flag took the Navy form for arrangement of the stars in 
parallel lines, and today Old Glory is an oblong square of stars, six deep and eight 

No American ever saw this glorious flag of ours in a foreign port, fluttering at the 
masthead of even the most insignificant vessel, without a thrill of excitement and 
exultation and gladness at the sight - without stepping a little more haughtily and 
firmly at the thought of his country across the ocean. 

It is said that the flag of our country was born in 1777, but that cannot be true. It was 
stitched into form at that time, in a little back parlour, but he who would know its 
origin must look far into the dim, pathetic, aspiring past. It was woven on the loom of 
ages - woven of the dreams and heartbeats of humanity, of the warp of sorrow and the 
woof of hope - by a Great Hand stretched out from the Unseen. All those who on red 
fields of war died that their sons might be free; all who in dark prison cell suffered for 
the rights of MAN; all who in the long night of tyranny toiled and prayed for a better 
day, added threads to our Flag. 

It floats today in the blue sky, swayed by happy winds, held aloft by innumerable 
hands of the living and the dead, at once a history and a prophecy. 

The colors blended in our Flag make it the sanctifying symbol of Unity, Fraternity 
and Goodwill among men. So may it ever be - Flag of Freedom and Friendship - 
woven of the mystic cords of memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot 
grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, proclaiming the 
time-glorified principles wrought out by the tears and prayers of our fathers. 

Let all those who stand under it join hearts in one faith, join hands in one purpose - 
for the safety and sanctity of this Republic; for the rights of man and the majesty of 
law; for the moral trusteeship of private property and public office; for the education 
of the ignorant; for the lifting of poverty, through self-help, to comfort; for the dignity 
of the home and the laughter of little children; for social beauty, national glory and 
human welfare. Long may it wave, rendered for all ages holy by the faith of the men 
who lifted it up, and the valour of the men who defended it in an hour of madness and 
peril. May it never again float over a field of war, but ever and forever over scenes of 
peace, honour and progress. 


Is it any wonder that the old soldier loves the Flag under whose folds he fought and 
for which his comrades shed so much blood? He loves it for what it is and for what it 
represents. It embodies the purposes and history of the government itself. It records 
the achievements of its defenders upon land and sea. It heralds the heroism and 
sacrifices of our Revolutionary fathers who planted free government on this continent 
and dedicated it to liberty forever. It attests the struggles of our army and the valour 
of our citizens in all the wars of the Republic. It has been sanctified by the blood of 
our best and our bravest. It records the achievement's of Washington and the 
martyrdom of Lincoln. It has been bathed in the tears of a sorrowing people. It has 
been glorified in the hearts of a freedom-loving people, not only at home but in ever 
part of the world. Our Flag expresses more than an other flag; it means more than 
any other national emblem. It expresses the will of a free people and proclaims that 
they are supreme and that the acknowledge no earthly sovereign other than them 
selves. It never was assaulted that thousands did not rise up to smite the assailant. 
Glorious old banner! 

Wherever there is a constitutional government which respects the rights of men and of 
the people and the public opinion of the world, Freemasonry is the loyal supporter of 
that government. Patriotism, loyalty to government and to our Flag, are found 
running through every Masonic degree. The Masonic formula for brotherhood rests 
upon the identical principles which were written large into the Constitution of the 
United States. 

Loyalty to country is a Masonic principle, yet to frequently this is construed to refer 
only to times war and national crisis. Loyalty carries with it highest obligation of 
citizenship; obedience to law, respect for constitutional authority, a recognition of the 
right of every human being to the enjoyment of life, liberty and the pursuit of 
happiness. The rights we enjoy as citizens carry with them corresponding duties. 
Among these duties is the proper exercise of the franchise, the careful and intelligent 
consideration of men and measures coming before the people for approval. No good 
Freemason will fail to be a good citizen, and to be found on the side of decency, civic 
righteousness, and public order. 

Freemasons preach the right to think, the right to speak, the right to worship in 
freedom, and as conscience alone shall dictate, but how many Freemasons know what 
these things mean - how many really believe in them? How many believe in them so 
firmly that they are willing to fight for them, live for them, die for them if need be? 
These things, when mentioned, sound decidedly like those principles of Americanism 
for which the soldier of our country goes out to fight. He believes in them. If our 
Masonic institution stands for them, whole-heartedly and unafraid, then we should 
use our Fraternity as a great force for the continued upbuilding of America. 

The activities of the Masonic lodge are today lopsided. They take too little account of 
civic duty, to which we are pledged in our obligations, and concerning which our 
charges have so much to say. 

The world at large already credits us with a far greater influence than we really 
possess. The real need is within our fraternity. The real challenge to us is that we 
prove our worth and show cause why our Order should continue to exist. The cry of 
the hour in Freemasonry is for leadership. Leaders who will do things. Leaders who 
are so filled with inspiration and consecration to the development of true citizenship - 
for the sake of America! - that they will forget self and self-interest and work for the 
attainment of the ideal. The real Freemasonry has a contribution of infinite value to 
make to America. 

We need, as never before, a clear, commanding conception of what America means. 
He is a poor patriot, and no Freemason at all, who has not asked himself what plan, 
what purpose, what prophecy the Great Architect is trying to work out in our national 
history. For true citizenship, no less than true statesmanship, consists in discerning 
the way the Eternal Will is moving and in getting things out of His way. Surely 
America exists to build in the new world a Beloved Community - united, just and free 
- where men of every race and creed may live and live well, because they live in 
moral fellowship under a sense of common interest and obligation: and loyalty to that 
ideal is true patriotism. For the same reason, race, class, party, sect, everything must 
be subordinated to the service of that ideal, that we may fulfill our national destiny 
and be of real service to all humanity. 


Governor Bent, a Masonic Martyr of New Mexico 

By Bro. F. T. CHEETHAM, New Mexico 

Brother Cheetham's story of "Kit Carson - A Mason of the Frontier," published in 
THE BUILDER, December, 1922, page 366, aroused so much interest that we urged 
him to continue his researches into the connections between Freemasonry and the 
early history of the Southwest with a view to making evident how large a part the 
Craft had in winning for the nation that vast empire, and more especially in 
establishing religious and political liberty there. The present narrative of the colorful 
career of a great pioneer was written in response, and after a great deal of special 
research, much of it among sources never before examined for such purposes. Other 
chapters will follow until a more or less complete account of Freemasonry In the 
early Southwest will have been published. Those who are especially interested, or 
who have suggestions to make or data to contribute, may address Brother Cheetham 
at Taos, New Mexico. 

MANY of our countrymen have been destined to follow the flag, but there are few 
whom the flag has followed. When President Jefferson, his ministers and 
plenipotentiaries negotiated the purchase of Louisiana Territory none, with the 
exception of Robert Livingston, foresaw what the future had in store for the newly 
acquired domain. At that time there were millions of acres of fertile vacant lands 
lying east of the Mississippi River yet to be developed; so there was no fear that the 
agricultural resources of the country were reechoing the high water mark. The motive 
which induced President Jefferson and those associated with him was to secure the 
right of deposit somewhere on the Mississippi, which had been then recently denied; 
or better still to secure a port where goods and products, originating largely on the 
Ohio River, could be transferred from rafts and flat boats to ocean-going vessels. 

Napoleon had lately, through his brother, Lucian, acquired Louisiana from Spain after 
it had been in possession of his Catholic Majesty for about two generations. With that 
military sagacity and foresight which easily made him the mastermind of Europe, 
Napoleon foresaw that it was only a matter of time when the invincible fleet of his 
arch-enemy across the channel would interpose itself between him and that rich 
possession Which was destined to become an industrial and commercial empire, 
therefore when our plenipotentiaries approached him with a view of securing a right 
of deposit or a port, he unloaded into the arms of the infant Republic this great 
territory with its hidden wealth untold. 

Many of our countrymen thought we had bought ourselves land poor. The fertile 
valleys could not at that time be farmed with profit, nor could the rivers be chained 
and harnessed; it might have long remained an idle waste had it not been for the great 
American fur trade which soon sprung up. The administration lost no time in 
encouraging the explorers to learn the extent and resources of the newly acquired 
territory by sending Lewis and Clark to the headwaters of the Missouri, and Pike to 
the source of Red River. The former passed their goal and re-discovered the 
Columbia, while the latter scaled the mighty Rockies and pitched his camp on the 
banks of the Rio Grande, where he fell into the clutch of the Spaniard, who was 
naturally jealous of the rising power of the young Republic, and was carried a 
prisoner to Chihuahua. Each in due time returned to the place from whence he came 
with a glowing account of what he had seen en route. Soon the trapper, the 
frontiersman and the lover of adventure were on the trail, followed closely by the 
trader to keep them supplied with ammunition and the necessaries, and perchance 
some of the unnecessaries, of life. And thus it was that the winning of the Far West 


Out of the sturdy and patriotic pioneers who helped to roll back the frontier, the hero 
of this sketch stands pre-eminent. Charles Bent was bom at Charlestown, Va., in 
1797. His ancestry, on the paternal side, was English while on the maternal side it 
was French. He was a man of education, having at one time studied medicine with a 
view of entering that profession, but later secured an appointment to West Point from 
which institution he graduated and entered the army. In a short time he resigned from 

the army to take up a mission of peace and engaged in a business enterprise at St. 
Louis. In 1 828 he made his first trip to the Far West with a view to entering the fur 
trade, and with his brother William erected a fort and trading post on the Arkansas 
River near the present city of Las Animas, Colo., known as Bent's Fort, or Fort 
William, as it was sometimes called. 

In 1832 the Bent brothers established a store in Santa Fe. Charles Bent soon 
afterwards became associated with Col. Ceran St. Vrain, another man and Mason who 
helped very materially to win the West. The firm of Bent & St. Vrain became a big 
concern and was second only to the American Fur Company. This co-partnership 
lasted until the tragic death of Governor Bent. They established a fort on the South 
Platte, north of the present City of Denver, known as St. Vrain's Fort; also a fort on 
the Canadian, known as the Adobe Fort, near which the First New Mexico Volunteer 
Cavalry, under the command of Col. Kit Carson, afterwards had a big fight with the 
Kiawas. They also established a store at Taos, New Mexico, where Gov. Bent lived 
and where he lost his life. Gov. Bent was married to Maria Ignacia Jaramillo, who 
was a daughter of Don Francisco Jaramillo and Apolonia (Vigil) Jaramillo, one of the 
most respected families in the territory. She was also a sister of Josefa Jaramillo, who 
married Gen. Kit Carson. Mrs. Bent survived the Governor thirty-seven years. 

In first checking up Gov. Bent's Masonic record, no definite information seemed 
obtainable. Several interviews with a daughter, who has lately departed this life, at 
Taos, New Mexico, also with grandchildren at Gallup and Clovis, New Mexico, 
failed to throw any light upon the question except that he had always been recognized 
as a brother by all Masons who came in contact with him. It was a matter of common 
knowledge among Freemasons that he had been buried with Masonic honors by his 
brethren and comrades at Santa Fe; that when a lodge of Masons was formed at Taos 
in 1860 it was chartered by the Grand Lodge of Missouri as Bent Lodge, No. 204, and 
that when, in after years, a lodge was chartered by the Grand Lodge of New Mexico 
for Taos, it took the name of Bent Lodge, No. 42. It was not until a copy of the 
Reprint of the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Missouri was obtained by Brother 
T. P. Martin, M. D., of Taos, a co-worker in Masonic research, that any definite 
information was uncovered. By it we find the name of Charles Bent standing 
alongside of Senator Benton as a charter member of Missouri Lodge, No. 1, of St. 
Louis. This was In 1821. No doubt can longer remain that this was our Charles Bent, 
for he was making his home in that city at the time. 


Taking up the thread of our story we find that soon after Gov. Bent located in Taos he 
was caught in the maelstrom of revolution and intrigue so frequent in that day and 
time among the natives of Mexico and was thrown in prison for a while. This was in 
1837. Some time prior thereto, in 1835, to be more definite, President Santa Ana had 
sent Col. Albino Parez as Governor of the Territory. In 1836 Gov. Parez promulgated 
a decree providing for schools and directing a tax to be levied in support thereof. 
While the proof is not at hand at this writing we have no doubt but that Gov. Parez 
was a "Yorkino," of which order Santa Ana was a member. If our conjecture is true it 
is only reasonable to suppose that Bent was confused with that fraternity from the 
south of the Rio Grande. The manner of his release is reserved for another sketch. It is 
sufficient to say, however, that it was not accomplished through the regular 
diplomatic channels! 

From this time on the war clouds began to gather. The seeds of hatred, sown to the 
winds at the Alamo in the treatment of the prisoners of Muir, and the ill-fated Texas- 
Santa Fe expedition, were soon to reap a whirlwind. But during all these trying times 
Charles Bent was ever at his post, and his business grew and prospered. Being versed 
in medicine he ministered unto the unfortunate about him, and they were legion, 
which to him was a matter of charity. 

On May 13, 1846, the storm, gathering for several years, burst forth and war was 
declared between the United States and Mexico. It was during the preceding month 
that a treaty had been signed between the United States and England, settling for all 
time the Oregon question. It had been in the winter of 1 842-3 that Marcus Whitman 
had made his famous ride to save that valuable and beautiful country. After breasting 
mountain snows and swimming rivers of slush ice he had made his way to Taos, the 
headquarters of the Bents, and by their aid he was enabled to get across the plains on 
his way to Washington. But the Oregon question had been settled, Oregon had been 
saved and war with England averted. The United States could devote all its energy to 
strengthening its frontier in the Southwest. By the latter part of June the Army of the 
West, commanded by Gen. Stephen W. Kearny, was under way for New Mexico. 

Bent's Fort, which had for years served as a haven of peace, was selected as the place 
of rendezvous, and it appears that the small army halted there while a detachment 
under command of Lieut. De Courcey proceeded to Taos to leam the state of mind of 
the inhabitants. Charles Bent rendered invaluable service as intelligence officer, being 
familiar with the topography of the country, its inhabitants and their language and 

On Aug. 15 the army, under Gen. Keamy, entered Las Vegas. Gov. ArmiJo, who had 
proven a terror to the helpless, issued his verbose proclamation, calling upon his 
countrymen to rally to his standard and to help hurl back (what he termed) "the foul 
invader." He gathered together an army, mightier in numbers than his adversary's, and 
with all the pomp, splendor and braggadocio, for which he was famous, and which 
would have shamed an oriental monarch, marched out towards Glorietta, at which 
place, or in the Apache Canon just below, a handful of men could have held back an 
invading army as the Greeks held Thermopylae. But the little American army 
marched on and on. Before they had drawn dangerously near him Armijo beat an 
inglorious retreat without waiting to fire a shot, while his army scattered to the four 
winds of heaven. On the 1 8th day of August, Kearny's army entered the ancient 
capital without having met with resistance. Next day he assembled the people in the 
plaza and in a speech to them said: 

"In taking possession of New Mexico we do not mean to take away from you your 
religion. Religion and government have no connection in our country. There, all 
religious are equal; one has no preference over the other; the Catholic and the 
Protestant are esteemed alike. Every man has a right to serve God according to his 
heart. When a man dies he must render to God an account of his acts here on earth, 
whether they be good or bad. In our government all men are equal. We esteem the 
most peaceable man, the best man. I advise you to attend to your domestic pursuits, 
cultivate industry, be peaceable and obedient to the laws. Do not resort to violent 
means to correct abuses." (Twitchell's Leading Facts, page 210.) 

On Sept. 22 Charles Bent was appointed civil Governor. Courts were established and 
a set of laws, known as the Kearny Code, was promulgated for the government of the 
department. Governor Bent immediately assumed the duties devolving upon him and 
on Sept. 25 Gen.Kearny departed for California after having left orders for Col. 

Doniphan's proceed south upon the arrival of Col. J. Sterling Price with 
the 2nd Missouri Volunteers. All went well until the latter part of December, when a 
plot was uncovered to assassinate Gov. Bent and exterminate all of the Americans. 

We prefer to let W.H.H. Davis, a man of scholarly attainments and legal training, who 
was appointed United States Attorney for the Territory in 1853, afterwards appointed 
Secretary of the Territory and who also served for eleven months as acting Governor, 
tell the story of this awful affair. In "El Gringo," published in New York in 1856, 
writing of the "Uprising of 1847," he said: 

"Notwithstanding the people had apparently submitted with good grace to the rule of 
the Americans, and appeared to be well satisfied with the condition of things, there 
was much discontent among a portion of the population, who resolved not to give up 
the country without a struggle. These were principally the wealthy class, with the 
addition of a few unquiet spirits, who saw their dreams of ambition dashed to the 
ground should the Americans retain possession of the country, and incorporate it 
permanently into the Union. These discontented ones soon began to mature their 
plans of rebellion, and like Catiline and his co-conspirators held meetings in retired 
places at the dead hour of night to plot the expulsion of their conquerors. The two 
leading spirits of the enterprise were Tomas Ortiz and Diego Archuleta, men of talent 
and enterprise, and of great ambition, whom gambling and intemperance had rendered 
desperate. They had the countenance and support of Manuel Chavez, Miguel E. Pino, 
Nicolas Pino, Pablo Dominguez and Tomas Baca of Pena Blanca, all men of 
influence. A number of priests joined in the conspiracy, and some even preached 
rebellion in the pulpit. The two who took the lead were the Vicar Juan Felipe Ortiz 
and Padre Jose Manuel Gallegos. Priest Ortiz, upon pretense of going to the town of 
Jolla, in Rio Arriba, in order to celebrate the feast of Our Lady of Guadelupe, visited 
the upper country to incite the people to rebellion. The same day he left Santa Fe, 
Priest Gallegos arrived in Albuquerque, by agreement with the co-conspirators, to 
arrange their operations. Everything was conducted with the most profound secrecy, 
and only a few of the leading men were made acquainted with their plans. The secret 
was not to be intrusted to a woman for fear of its being divulged. 

“The first meeting was held on the twelfth of December, 1 846, and the nineteenth of 
the same month was fixed upon as the time of rising, which was to be general all over 
the Territory. All the Americans were to be either killed or driven from the country, 
as also Mexicans who accepted office under General Kearny. This accomplished, they 
were to seize upon the government and establish themselves in power. To each of the 

ringleaders a distinct duty was assigned, and they mutually pledged themselves upon 
the cross. So confident were they of success that they even named the chief officers of 
the new government, among whom Tomas Ortiz was fixed upon for governor, and 
Archuleta to be the commandant general. The master spirits went to different sections 
of the country to stir up the people to resistance. Everything looked propitious, and 
promised success to the enterprise. 


"A final meeting was held in Santa Fe on the evening of the eighteenth to arrange the 
plan of attack upon the garrison, but not finding their organization complete, they 
agreed to postpone the time of taking up arms until Christmas eve. This was 
considered a more fitting time to make the attempt, inasmuch as it would be a season 
of amusement, when the soldiers would be generally off their guard, scattered about 
the town unarmed, and could be easily overcome. The following was the plan of 
attack agreed upon, and as sworn to before the court upon the trial of some of the 

'"On Saturday evening, the nineteenth of December, all were to assemble with their 
men at the parish church. Having divided themselves into several parties, they were to 
sally forth, some to seize the pieces of artillery, others go to the quarters of the 
colonel, and others to the palace of the governor (if he should be there) and if not, to 
send con order to Taos to seize him, because he would give them the most trouble. 
This act was also agreed upon by all. The sound of the church bell was to be the 
signal of assault by the forces concealed in the church, and those which Diego 
Archuleta should have brought near the city; midnight was the time agreed upon, 
when all were to enter the plaza at the same moment, seize the pieces) and point them 
into the streets.' 

"This conspiracy was discovered in time to place the troops on their guard, and 
prevent it being carried into effect at the time agreed upon. Three days before the time 
of raising, Augustin Duran informed Governor Bent of the plan of rebellion, who 
immediately caused several of the leaders to be arrested. 

"The discovery had only smothered, not quenched, the revolutionary spirit, and a new 
and more extended conspiracy was almost immediately placed on foot. Religious 
fanaticism was made use of to incite the people against the Americans, and they were 
called upon to arm themselves in defense of their holy faith, their homes and their 
country. Some of the Pueblo Indians were enlisted in the cause, which greatly added 
to their strength. Great secrecy was observed, and no suspicion was entertained that 
another outbreak was so near at hand. 

"The time fixed upon was the nineteenth day of January 1847, when the people took 
up arms in various parts of the country. Governor Bent, supposing that the rebellion 
was quelled, left Santa Fe for his home at Don Fernandez de Taos where he arrived 
about the middle of the month. A large body of rebels, composed mainly of the 
Pueblo Indians, and incited to the act by Priest Martinez and others, attacked his 
residence and murdered him and several others in cold blood. The same day seven 
Americans were attacked at the Arroyo Hondo who, after defending themselves for 
two days, were most cruelly butchered. Four were killed at the Moro, and two on the 
Rio Colorado. A large rebel force had assembled at. La Canada for the purpose of 
advancing upon Santa Fe, but General Price, being aware of their movements, 
marched against them with four hundred men and four pieces of mountain howitzers. 
He attacked them on the afternoon of the twenty- fourth, and routed them with a loss 
of nearly a hundred men. They retreated toward Taos, closely followed by our troops. 
They made a stand at El Embudo, where they were again defeated with loss. They 
continued their retreat to Taos, followed by the Americans, who arrived there on the 
third day of February. They found the Mexicans and Indians strongly fortified in the 
Pueblo of the latter, the main body having Entrenched themselves in the church. An 
attack was made upon them the next morning and the action continued all day with 
great fierceness and considerable loss. The following day they capitulated and 
surrendered the place into the hands of the Americans. In these actions the enemy lost 
three hundred killed and wounded while our loss was about sixty." (Pages 94, 95, 96 
and 97.) 


There are some things in the foregoing narrative which are very significant to one 
acquainted with the history and customs of the country. We note that the Vicar 
General Juan Felipe Ortiz visited the "Upper Country." The "Upper Country" had 
been the birthplace of revolution. It was in Taos, in the "Upper Country," that the 
rebellion of 1680 originated which, for almost a decade, defied the Spanish 
authorities. The "Upper Country" again figured in the revolution of 1837, which 
terminated the regime of Gov. Albino Parez and his public schools. It was in the 
"Upper Country" that the priest sought to stage the massacre of 1847. Again, the 12th 
of December was the date set for meetings to be held throughout the country; this was 
Guadelupe day, the great Mexican festival, the anniversary of the day when, as all 
Mexicans believe, the Virgin had appeared to the Indian, Juan Diego, on the barren 
hill of Tepeyacac, more than three centuries before. This therefore was the day of 
days when fealty to mother church and mother country would be at its highest. The 
church bell was to be the signal of assault and sound the death knell of the new born 
religious liberty in New Mexico. 

That the priests were largely instrumental in inciting this uprising can not be doubted. 
If not, why were churches selected as the places of rendezvous? They could have 
prevented such use by their parishioners had they so desired. 

Touching the part played in this affair by Padre Martinez, the Roman Catholic curate 
at Taos, we find the following comments in the History of New Mexico, published in 
1907, and edited by Mr. George B. Anderson: 

"The home of Fr. Martinez was generally regarded as the headquarters of the 
insurrectionists prior to the uprising and until after the attack upon Taos. His power 
over the parishioners was absolute and his hatred of Americans and American 
institutions was recognized by all. This fact was recopied by such men as Governor 
Bent, Charles Beaubien, Col. St. Vrain and Kit Carson as ample proof of his 
complicity in the affair. (P. 94~) 

Again the same work says: 

"Father Antonio Jose Martinez, who was regarded by many as one of the chief 
authors of the Taos insurrection, was one of the most remarkable men who was ever 
identified with the history of New Mexico." (p. 95.) 

The duplicity of the priests is evidenced by the statement of John T. Hughes, in 
Doniphan's Expedition, who says: 

"Near this same time (late in August) the priest of San Felipe and the curate of the 
churches in the Valley of Taos came to acknowledge the authority of the conqueror, 
receive his commands and ask protection for the churches and church property. The 
general having assured them that their temples of worship should be respected and 
their 'religion in the amplest manner preserved to them,' they returned peaceably and 
favorably disposed toward the Americans, more subdued by kindness than by force of 
arms. They did not even forbear to speak in praise of the generous and magnanimous 
conduct of their conquerors. (It was not long before these faithless priests and leaders 
were detected in a conspiracy against the new government.)" 

The feeling of all the priests of that time towards the new government was probably 
expressed by Padre Antonio Jose Martinez, if we are to believe the story of his 
biographer, Don Pedro Sanchez, who says that one of the father's pupils asked the 
curate one day what the government of the United States was like. The master replied 
that it was like a burro: “The lawyers can ride but the clergymen can not.” 

In Two Thousand Miles on Horseback, by Col. James F. Meline, who visited the 
country at the close of the Civil War, we find the following observations of the 
religious status of the country under the Mexican priests. He says: 

"With the advent of los Americanos came a changed state of things in the Church. It 
was not without reason that several Mexican priests were mote than implicated in the 
rising or insurrection of 1 847 against the Americans, in which Governor Bent was 
massacred at Taos. The annexation of New Mexico to the United States brought it 
under their Catholic ecclesiastical authorities, and they knew well what to expect 

from any bishop who might come from us. They understood 'Diana of the Ephesians.' 
A bishop was sent from the United States. There was a general suspension, 
unfrocking, dismay and howling among those Mexican priests (and it would have 
been difficult to find the exceptions), who 'kept cocks and fit 'em,' had cards and 
played 'em, indulged in housekeepers of an uncanonical age, and more nieces than the 
law allowed." (p. 190.) 


While we have not the proof at hand it is not unreasonable to suppose from facts 
known that these people were acting on orders from higher up. Judge Benedict, who 
assumed the Supreme Bench of the Territory in 1853, in the case of Carter vs. 
Territory (I. N. M., 317), says in part: 

"The movements of a portion of these people in what is known as the Taos 
'Insurrection' against the United States authority and government seems to have 
drawn towards these inhabitants strong professions of sympathy from the Mexican 
government." (Op. 323) 

"On the sixth of September following [the signing of the treaty] the President of 
Mexico appointed and commissioned Ramon Ortiz, a priest, to execute the 
instructions of the decree. In due time he arrived in this territory. Of this the court 
may take notice. It may refer to the safest sources of information to know the events 
of that period. So far as a knowledge of these is essential to the consideration of the 
matters under consideration, none can be more reliable than the written relation of the 
honorable Joab Houghton, who, from the conquest of the country down to the 
induction of the territorial government occupied the position of Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court and circuit judge, and must have had full knowledge of all the 
movements resulting from the entrance of Ortiz among the Mexicans, and his 
promises to and deportment with them. The records of the executive proceedings of 
that time will also assist in the inquiry we are now making. After reaching Santa Fe, 
the commissioner journeyed through some of the counties and, to use the language 
contained in the narrative of Joab Houghton, produced a great excitement among the 

people, inducing a large portion of the inhabitants of those counties not only to 
declare themselves as retaining the character of Mexican citizens and their readiness 
at once to emigrate but excited them to acts of disturbance and disregard to the then 
existing authorities. In fact, as it then appeared to both civil and military authorities, 
an open rebellion was threatened in consequence of the course taken by the 
commissioner. See executive records sustaining the truth of Houghton's statement." 
(Op. p. 337.) 

". . . It was now after the peace confirming the conquest in the midst of all the hatred 
and bitterness against the Americans and the United States which the conquest and its 
consequences had engendered among a people foreign in language laws, customs and 
religion, with the pride of kindred and race peculiar to all Spanish races, in the midst 
of those who had lately, as the Mexican Cabinet council said, 'risen against the 
government and the American name and blood in the country,' and when risen, whose 
steps and deeds were marked with murder, robbery and fiendish atrocity in the village 
of Taos, and who, as counsel assert, though 'their plans were discovered and 
disconcerted, their conspiracies frustrated, did not cease to conspire.' A popular, 
powerful and well-known priest, clothed with a commission from the Mexican 
government, though dismembered and humiliated, was exciting the prejudices of the 
people already hostile to the new government, offering bounties to those who would 
reject allegiance, and payment of expenses to them upon their emigration." (id. Op. 

If this was done after Mexico had acknowledged defeat by a sacred treaty, what could 
we have expected from her before she had made her last stand! 

There is another phase in the life of Governor Bent that interests us most. As was 
already noted he had for many years been a Freemason, in fact, so far as we have 
been able to ascertain, the first of that Fraternity to settle in New Mexico. Freemasons 
were not in favor with the powers that held sway under the Mexican regime. Josiah 
Gregg relates some of his experiences in that line as follows: 

"Before leaving Durango I witnessed one of those civil broils which are so common 
in Mexico. I was not even aware that any difficulty had been brewing at all, till I was 
waked on the morning of the 25th by a report of firearms. Stepping out to ascertain 
what was the matter, I perceived the azotea of the parochial church occupied by 
armed men, who seemed to be employed in amusing themselves by discharging their 
guns at random upon the people in the streets. These bravos, as I was afterwards 
informed, belonged to the bishop's party, or that of the Escosseses, which was openly 
at war with the liberalists, anti-hierarchists, or Yorkinos, and were resorting to this 
summary mode of proceeding in order to bring about a change of affairs; for at the 
time the liberal party had the ascendancy in the civil government of Durango." 
(Commerce of the Prairies, p. 102.) 

Again he says: 

"It may already be generally known, perhaps, that the predominant party in Mexico 
(and particularly in the North), is decidedly anti-Masonic. During my stay in 
Chihuahua I had an opportunity to test their antipathy for that mysterious 
brotherhood. This was evidenced in the seizure of a dozen or two cotton 
handkerchiefs which, unknown to myself, happened to bear the stamp of the 'Masonic 
carpet.' These obnoxious articles having attracted the attention of some lynx-eyed 
friar, one day, much to my consternation, my store was suddenly invaded by the 
alcalde and some ecclesiastics. The handkerchiefs were seized without ceremony, and 
by an auto de fe. condemned to be publicly burned." (id. Vol. II, p. 121.) 

When the military authorities found it necessary to select a man to act as the first civil 
governor under American rule, Charles Bent was chosen as the most fit for this 
responsibility. When the conspirators began to plot he was the first to be removed for 
he was the most feared. His power and influence was far reaching, yet even Caesar 
fell at the hand of an assassin. When warned on the eve of his death, Governor Bent 
said: "I have nothing to fear. I have fed these people when they were hungry, clothed 
them when naked and ministered unto their ailments in time of distress. They will not 
harm me." But he was the first to be slain. The unspeakable cruelties of his last agony 
are beyond description. Let us pass over the harrowing details of his taking oft. They 
are too terrible to contemplate. They belong to the dark ages. His work was 
unfinished yet it was the decree of fate that he be sacrificed upon the altar of religious 

and political bigotry, before the fires of the auto de fe should be forever extinguished. 
He had blazed the trail for the flag to follow and his name should go down to 
posterity as the first patriot of the great Southwest. His life was given for his country 
and the things it stood for. 

His remains were thrice buried. First by his comrades in an improvised cemetery at 
Santa Fe. Afterwards his body was raised and re-interred in a cemetery dedicated to 
his Craft. Again they were raised for more decent interment in the National Cemetery 
at Santa Fe. Let us hope that some day due honor will be paid this true patriot and a 
suitable monument erected to his memory. 

Note. - Students who care to pursue this subject further should secure House 
Executive Document No. 60, Thirtieth Congress, first session, entitled, "Occupation 
of Mexican Territory." 

— o — 

Why All This Secrecy? 

By Bro. ARTHUR C. PARKER, Associate Editor, New York 

The bold man who sets out to joust with a learned lady must go well armed, must he 
not? In his quiver should be many arrows, thirteen at least, which number has been 
deemed a sign of ill-omen by women folk since time began, why, it would take a 
learned lady to tell. Will Brother Parker permit one to contribute a shaft to his bow? 
In Freemasonry, secrecy is more than a mere device for shutting out the profane, God 
rest their souls, but is employed as a symbol of something that a man is to practice 
always and everywhere; in other terms, it is a virtue, and Freemasonry teaches it to be 
such. What would life be in the hubbub of the world if men knew not how to keep 
inviolate a brother's word? All the kindliest and most benign of human relationships 

would vanish away, leaving us all strangers one to another. Yes, secrecy is a virtue. 
Is this a hard saying for women? One should wish not, but- There is danger here of 
transgressing on Brother Parker's preserves, who is abundantly able to take care of 
himself, even with Katherine Fullerton Gerould. Mrs. Gerould may have the 
privilege of the last word here if she desires it. 

PAUSE a moment and reflect. What is there in the secret society that excites and 
holds the interest of normal American citizens of good character? Is it the ritual, the 
mysticism, the gold lace, the high sounding titles, the parades or the esoteric 
teachings? And, why all the secrecy? 

A woman wants to know. She is that very clever woman, Katherine Fullerton 
Gerould, and not one of the questions that she asks in her article, "Ritual and 
Regalia," in the November Atlantic Monthly, even remotely hints at an answer. 

Apparently sure of her ground she boldly challenges any anthropologist to make 
reply, feeling certain that an ultimate authority on the folkways of man will retire in 

"Is all this initiating and swearing of oaths, and reverencing of insignia, mere protest 
against the drabness of life?" she asks, and then leaps into another question: "If so, 
why is it that women do not indulge? Women are supposed to be fonder both of 
secrets and ornaments than men are, yet you will notice that it is not the women of the 
country who invent rituals and fashion symbolic costumes for themselves. Women 
do not wear aprons on the street if they can help it, but men do. . . . There must be 
some good and dignified reason for it or it would not be so widespread. There must 
be something in the male heart that is left out of the female heart." 

You will observe that the clever critic comes closely to answering her own question 
in this last sentence. 

Yet she goes on with her questions and marvels that men are proud of their 
connection with a secret society. "What is this instinct, so strong that it conquers the 
general horror of being conspicuous and absurd?" she asks. 

The lady tells us that her gentlemen friends do not belong to secret societies, but that 
they are sorry that they did not join years ago. Thus she appeals through the pages of 
a magazine and challenges the anthropologist and student of folklore to answer her. 

A good question has been raised, but it is a feminine and not a masculine question. 
For a versatile woman the questioner betrays a surprising lack of insight into the 
psychology of boys and men. Many a female of less brilliance has discovered that 
men are but boys grown up and having greater capacity to satisfy their innate 
longings. But how shall we answer our interrogator? 

Shall we begin by telling the story of civilization, of how primal women closely 
hugged their cave fires and crooned lullabys to their babes, while the men roved the 
thicket killing beast and human enemies, or satisfied their revenge, or brought back 
fine peltries to their mates, only then to retire to the Wise Man's cave to discuss in 
secret how they might slay more beasts and intruders, discover more booty for their 
females or perhaps wrest the secrets of power from the gods? 

Shall we dwell upon the natural instinct of primitive men to gather in the Men's 
House to initiate youths in the duties of warriors and hunters and to swear them to 
chastity, thereby preparing them as fit providers for future homes, well grounded in 
morals and traditions. Shall we recount the development of human society and show 
how secret associations and gilds were necessary for the teaching and preservation of 
great truths that uninstructed mortals may not be entrusted with until after initiation? 
Shall we delineate the history of dross and costume and show that both males and 
females even now love to satisfy their desires for distinctive dress, especially by 
uniforms expressing group personality? 

More than this, shall we show that by mask and costume normal human beings seek 
to extend their personality and vary it and through the medium of dramatics thus 
finding new wellsprings of moral energy within themselves? 

All this would be only to recite history and to give it an anthropological 
interpretation, and our critic would say that all this might be granted but why the 

It is because secrecy not only adds zest to the rites but permits men with common 
aims to gather into fraternities where they may promote their principles and engage in 
their ceremonies unmolested by those who have not been found worthy and well 

And, "all this initiating and swearing ?" Simply because brothers must agree upon 

principles and thoroughly understand them. Men enjoy the experience of opening 
their eyes upon strange surroundings and of seeing the unfamiliar objects of another 
world, not for the novelty of it only but to discover for themselves how they react to 
unfamiliar conditions. So much for the ritual and regalia. 

Beyond these things there is the joy of human fellowship, the mingling with men in 
all honest walks of life, wherein it is discovered who best can work and best agree. It 
is here that qualities of manhood, of ability, of leadership and of mental make-up are 
revealed. It is in the secret society that men come to appreciate and to love their 
fellow men. Because of this most normal men seek a fraternity and find in it the 
satisfaction of every fundamental desire in the male heart-the desire to be, to have, to 
rank, to know, to feel, to fit. Through the righteous satisfaction of these desires men 
grow in social and spiritual qualities. 

Secrecy is one of the finest instincts that man possesses and contributes to his identity 
and individuality. It springs from nature itself. It is the instinct of secrecy that closes 
the door of the home to the stranger from the street and gives to each member of the 
family his own room. Much that is noble and lofty manifests itself in secrecy. The 

Christian prays alone in his closet, and groups of the spiritually exalted meet in "class 
rooms" for experience meetings, where they may pour out their hearts to God and 
their fellows. 

Secrecy not only means privacy and protection from prying eyes that seek to use 
personal situations for promiscuous purposes, but it means decency and order. 
Secrecy is the peculiar garb of fraternity. The initiate assumes the garb in order to be 
known and distinguished as a brother in a great family of friends and brothers, and he 
is oath-bound to do this, for by initiation he becomes a more developed personality, 
having a "new name". The rite of initiation is an old one and one that men and 
women have long understood. It is only by sophistry and the perversion of ideas, 
some of them springing from prurient minds, that the utility and righteousness of 
secrecy has ever been questioned. 

To strip a fraternity of its secrecy is like divesting a man of all his clothing and saying 
to him, "Walk as God made you." There would be nothing evil in this, per se, BUT, 
the customs of decency and the desire for protection require a man to wear a garb of 
some kind. And secret fraternities are nothing more than purposeful men multiplied. 

As for the apron which our lady critic says the brethren wear in the street when 
women will not do so if they can help it, let it be stated in full confidence that most 
women, our interrogator included, would not only wear aprons in the street but even 
tied about their heads, if Dame Fashion so dictated. All of which convinces us that 
clever questions are not always sincere. 

— o — 

“Man with his burning soul 
Has but an hour of breath 

To build a ship of truth 

In which his soul may sail - 
Sail on the sea of death, 

For death takes toll 
Of beauty, courage, youth, 
Of all out truth....” 

— o — 

A Sketch of the Constantinian Orders of Knighthood 

By Bro. GEORGE W. WARVELLE, P.G.M., Illinois 

Old-time readers of THE BUILDER will have in memory a series of sparkling essays 
from Brother Warvelle on themes various and sundry, the titles and dates of which are 
worthy of record: "The Ineffable Name," November, 1915, page 271; "The Perfect 
Youth," January, 1916, page 17; "Sectarianism and Freemasonry," April, 1916, page 
109; "At Refreshment," April, 1917, page 111. To these are now to be added two or 
three more, the first of which is given here-with. It was composed several years ago, 
but until now has not received the wide hearing it deserves. 

To correct, in some measure, the erroneous opinions concerning the Constantinian 
Orders of Knighthood, which, mainly through lack of proper information, seem to 
have gained currency, the Grand Imperial Council of the Order has caused to be 
published for the information of the Craft within its jurisdiction, the following 
summary of the history, purposes and organization of these exalted degrees of 

They are the most ancient of all the chivalric orders and degrees, and, unlike all of the 
other great ecclesiastical-military organizations which sprang into existence or were 
first brought to public notice during the crusades, have a legendary history extending 
back to the early days of the Christian era. As all orders and degrees in Freemasonry 
are more or less based on legends, the truth of which cannot be demonstrated, so it is 
not pretended that the Constantinian Orders rest upon any stronger or more reliable 
foundation; yet it is certain that they have existed for many years and find mention in 
Masonic nomenclature as early as 1736. From our ancient traditions we learn that the 
Order of the Red Cross was founded by Constantine the Great, Oct. 28, A.D. 313, as a 
memorial of the divine miracle which effected his conversion to the Christian faith, 
and also as a reward for the valour of certain of his soldiers. It is related that on the 
day previous to his ever memorable battle with Maxentius, as Constantine was seated 
at his tent door reflecting upon the dangers of the approaching expedition and 
sensible of his own incapacity to succeed without divine assistance, he offered up a 
prayer for divine inspiration and wisdom to choose the right path to be pursued. As 
he turned his face toward the setting sun there suddenly appeared in the heavens a 
pillar of light in the shape of a cross, surmounted with the inscription, "In hoc signo 
vinces" - in this sign conquer. So extraordinary an appearance created the utmost 
astonishment in the mind of the Emperor and his whole army. The Pagans deemed it 
a most inauspicious omen, but Constantine, being reassured by the visions of the 
night, on the morrow made a public avowal of his faith in the God of the Christians. 
He caused a royal standard to be constructed in imitation of the luminous cross which 
he had seen in his vision, and commanded it to be carried before him as an ensign of 
victory and divine protection, while the consecrated emblem was conspicuously 
displayed upon his own person and that of his soldiers. After the memorable battle, 
which was fought at Saxs Rubra, a small village about nine miles from Rome, the 
Emperor sent for the chiefs of the Christian legion, and in presence of his other 
officers constituted them into an Order of Knighthood with the celestial cross as an 
insignia, and, on the return of peace, became himself the Sovereign Patron there-of. 
These Christian warriors were then selected to compose the bodyguard of 
Constantine, and the command of same was confided to Eusebius, bishop of 
Nicomedia, who was thus considered the second officer of the Order. Whether these 
incidents are true or false is immaterial so far as they affect the present objects and 
purposes of the Order. 

After the death of Constantine and the division of the empire, the Order is said to 
have flourished under his successors, Marcian and Leo, but afterward declined until 
the year 1 190, when it was revived by the Emperor Michael Angelus Comnenus on a 
scale of increased splendour. From this time down to 1699 the Grand Mastership was 

vested in the Comnenian family, who were considered the lineal descendants of 
Constantine. At this later period the dignity was vested in one Andrew Angelus 
Comnenus, titular Prince of Macedonia, who pretended to assign his hereditary rights 
to Francis Famese, the reigning Duke of Parma. The Grand Crosses of the Order, one 
of whom was the Abbe Giuistiniani, continued, however, to exercise their undoubted 
privilege of conferring the Red Cross upon worthy men; and it is to this learned Abbe, 
who was long attached to the Venetian Embassy in London, that the existence of the 
Order in England is attributed. The members of the English branch during the 
eighteenth century were men of high social position and of eminence in the Masonic 
Fraternity, but, like the Knights Templars, we are unable to say positively when the 
Order was restricted to Freemasons. It is presumed that this regulation was made 
about 1788, as from this date it appears wholly under Masonic auspices. In 1796 the 
Grand Master of the Templars was also the head of the Red Cross Order. In 1804 it 
was vested in Waller Redwell Wright, a most distinguished Mason, to whom we are 
indebted for the form of our present rituals. In 1908 a constitutional government was 
effected, and the present Imperial Council of England established. There is a 
continuous record still in existence from 1788. 


The Order of the Holy Sepulchre is said to have been instituted A.D. 326, by St. 
Helena, the mother of Constantine, in commemoration of her discoveries in the Holy 
Land. It was instituted with the sanction of Constantine and confirmed by the Pontiff 
Marcelinus. The Knights were selected from the Order of the Red Cross, and the 
original investments were made at Jerusalem, the knightly vows being made while 
kneeling at the sacred tomb. The two Orders have always been intimately connected, 
and since 1190 under the same government. The history of the Holy Sepulchre since 
that period is therefore identical with that of the Red Cross. 

The Holy Order of St, John the Evangelist purports to be a continuation of the 
Palestine Order of St. John, as distinguished from the Hospitallers and other orders 
which claim a dedication to that Saint. It is based upon certain incidents which are 
said to have occurred in the restoration of the fourth Gospel, as related by the 
Byzantine historians, and assumes to be a final exposition of the fundamental 
concepts of Freemasonry. It is further claimed that the Knights of St. John of 

Palestine were the true Masons, as to them only were the words of the highest import 
imparted, and that it was only after warfare with the enemies of the faith they 
received this privilege and were admitted to full communion with the Holy 

In 1813 H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex became the Grand Master of the united Orders for 
the term of his natural life, and continued to exercise the dignity until his decease in 
1843. The Order remained in a languishing condition from this time until 1865, when 
the Imperial Council of England was revived and the present organization adopted. 

In the year 1 869 the Earl of Bective, then the Grand Sovereign of England, 
commissioned Fra. McLeod Moore an Intendant General, with authority to introduce 
the Orders into the western hemisphere, and in pursuance of this authority and 
through various intermediaries, conclaves were finally established in Illinois during 
the year 1872. On Aug. 30, 1872, the representatives of these conclaves met at the 
city of Chicago, 111., and by virtue of a dispensation from the Grand Sovereign of 
England authorizing the formation of Independent Grand Councils, and a further 
special dispensation from his Chief Intendant General for the United States, Fra. 
Alfred Creigh, they organized a new and sovereign body which they called the 
"Grand Imperial Council of Illinois." The new body thus created was thereafter duly 
recognized and acknowledged by the Grand Imperial Council of England as a 
properly organized and legally existing governing body of the Orders with sovereign 
powers and a peer of the parent body. 

Although possessing beautiful as well as ancient rituals, which in lethargic expression 
and exalted symbolism compare favourably with the best of any rite of Freemasonry, 
yet the primary object of the Order has constantly been to promote the social features 
of the Masonic Institution and to preserve, as far as possible, the primitive customs of 
the fraternity that conduce to good feeling and fellowship. As these objects and 
purposes became known to the Craft an interest was created in territory lying without 
the claimed exclusive jurisdiction of the Grand Imperial Council of Illinois. This 
eventually resulted in the organization of conclaves in other states, and with this 
extension of territorial jurisdiction there came a general feeling that the organic law 
should be so changed as to meet the new conditions. Accordingly, at the assembly 
held at Jacksonville, 111., on Oct. 13, 1899, a new constitution was adopted whereby 

the governing body became the "Grand Imperial Council for the Western Masonic 
Jurisdiction of the United States," exercising sovereign prerogatives over the grades 
and orders in all of the states west of the Alleghenies. But after a time conclaves 
were organized in localities without this last named jurisdiction, and so, in pursuance 
of what appeared to be manifest destiny, at the assembly held at the city of Duluth, 
Minn., on Aug. 14, 1907, the constitution was again amended and the supreme body 
became the "Grand Imperial Council for the United States of America," the name by 
which it is now called. This organization, with a jurisdiction embracing all parts of 
the Union where no Grand Council exists, has been duly recognized by the Grand 
Imperial Council of England, the mother council of the world, as a lawful and regular 
governing body of the Orders within its claimed territory, and relations of amity and 
correspondence have been established. 


The Constantinian Orders are the only chivalric grades now conferred in this country 
that can show direct descent from the parent stock, and which can trace an unbroken 
line of genealogy. Originally the initial grade was called the "Illustrious Order of the 
Red Cross," and as this Order and that of Knight Templar were the only chivalric 
degrees recognized in England at the time Webb constructed his "American System," 
it is supposed that, not being possessed of the English degree, he fabricated the 
present Red Cross of American Templary in order that his system might coincide 
with the names of the English bodies. The degree now known as Red Cross of 
Constantine is, however the original, as well as the present, Red Cross of English 

The degrees of the Constantinian Orders are six in number, three working and three 
official, and are conferred in the following order: 

1 . Knight of the Red Cross of Constantine (or Perfect Knight Mason) conferred in a 
body styled a Conclave. 

2. A Knight of the Holy Sepulchre conferred in a body styled Sanctuary. 

3. Knight of St. John of Palestine (the Evangelist) conferred as an appendant Order to 
the last named, but in a body styled a Commandery. 

4. Viceroy-Eusebius (or Perfect Priest Mason) conferred in a College of Viceroys 
erected within the Imperial Council, and only on the elected Viceroys of Conclaves 
except by dispensation. 

5. Sovereign-Constantine (or Perfect Prince Mason) conferred in a Senate of 
Sovereigns established within the Imperial Council, and only on the elected 
Sovereigns of Conclaves, except by dispensation. 

6. Grand Cross of the Order - a decoration and dignity conferred upon worthy and 
eminent Knights of the Order as a special mark of honour and distinction. The 
number of Knights Grand Cross is limited to fifty, in accordance with the ancient 
statutes promulgated by the Emperor Michael Angelus Comnenus. 

The Masonic qualification for membership in these Orders is that the applicant shall 
be a Royal Arch Mason in good standing. By the ancient statutes Master Masons are 
eligible for the Order of the Red Cross, but to attain the Holy Sepulchre it is 
necessary that the postulant be also a Royal Arch Mason. In England, where the rule 
is still observed, but few ever attain this last dignity, indeed the number is limited to 
ninety-nine. In this country all of the so-called working Orders are open without 
limit, and for this reason the qualifications for the Holy Sepulchre are required of all 

Faith, Unity and Zeal are the principles upon which this chivalric fraternity is 
founded. A reverential belief in the New Covenant, the blessings of fraternal union, 
and the advantages of zeal in a good cause, are impressed upon the minds of our 

aspirants, who are taught to reflect not only upon the mysteries of life, but on the 
solemn secrets of the hereafter. In this respect the Order may well claim kinship with 
the noble institution of Freemasonry, from which its members are chosen, and with 
which they consider it their duty as well as their privilege to continue allied. 

In the Constantinian Orders the allegories and primary symbolism of the lodge and 
chapter are retained unchanged, but with new interpretations and more recondite 
meanings. The True Word, for which our ancient brethren sought, is recovered, and 
is itself the Light which shone in darkness, and the darkness comprehended it not. 

All of the ceremonies are designed to illustrate this phase of the symbols, and the 
precepts and lessons are drawn wholly from the teachings of the Master of Nazareth. 
Only those who are willing to follow in the footsteps of the Divine Master can, with 
propriety, assume our obligations, and for this reason, although no specific definition 
of the aspirants' religious views are required, those only will be accepted who can 
subscribe to a general belief in the Christian religion as set forth in the New 

In their essential characteristics the Orders may be said to constitute a beautiful 
system of Christian Masonry, and to furnish a most impressive allegorical sequel to 
the history of the Craft degrees. In their development the neophyte gazes for the last 
time upon the fragmentary forms and types of the Mosaic dispensation; upon the 
ruins of the ancient temple he sees arise the New Tabernacle of Divine Truth, whose 
existence human power shall not be able to affect, and whose duration shall be for an 
eternity of ages; the confusion of the Old Covenant is made clear in the New Law, 
and he learns that the mysteries of the Craft are in reality but the mysteries of 
religion. His long initiation of toil ended, he lays down the implements of labour and 
rises to a higher sphere of usefulness and duty; neither is there longer any Temple, 
because the light of the Lord is universally dim used and the world has become one 
Holy House of his wisdom. 

But while the Constantinian Orders are essentially Christian, they involve no sacrifice 
of personal beliefs, and compel adherence to no formulated creed. They do not 
assume to prescribe articles of faith or to usurp the province of the church, neither do 
they attempt to fetter the mind with the shackles of sectarian prejudice or 
denominational bias. That perfect right of freedom of conscience, so essential to 

every man who would obtain just conceptions of Deity, is accorded to all, and the 
only doctrines inculcated are those of the Gentle Master himself - "the true Light 
which lighteth every man that cometh into the world." 

Historically considered the Order of the Red Cross of Constantine commemorates the 
first elevation of Christianity from the position of a despised and proscribed heresy, to 
that of a legally recognized and honoured religion. Christianity had indeed existed 
for more than three centuries before the institution of the Order, but always under the 
ban of restrictive laws and proclamations, more or less rigidly enforced, according to 
the caprice of those intrusted with their administration, and it was not until 
Constantine won the battle which gave him supreme control over the Western Empire 
that it acquired an established place among the religions of the world. Created, 
therefore, by the first Christian ruler, it was fitting that to our Order should have been 
committed the keeping of the faith as it was delivered to the founders of our religion, 
and the guardianship and preservation of the true key to what has been hidden, in the 
design of God's providence, concerning the real meaning of His, ordinances. To us 
has come, by the hands of generations of faithful Knights, the knowledge first 
revealed to and through St. John the Evangelist, of the mysterious, yet beautifully 
simple explanation of all God's revelations to and dealings with man, and we have 
found that they all led to and were comprehended in the great fact, that God was the 
Word from the beginning and that for which man had been searching in all ages, the 
beginning and the end of wisdom, was found, at last, upon the Cross. 

— o — 

Poems of the Craft 


There is a code of moral grace 
From sweetest inspirations drawn, 

Which touches in the holiest place 
The sentiment hope feeds upon. 

It somehow brings together those 
Bound by no other interest here 
In closest ties, whose acts disclose 
The principles which they revere. 

The system breathes of love and strength, 
Of confidence 'twixt man and man, 

And, delving through its depths at length 
To understand its graceful plan, 

New truths and beauties mark the way 
Where'er our searching footsteps lead 
Through labyrinths whose rich display 
Reveals a wondrous wealth indeed. 

A wealth of wisdom, love and power, 

A wealth of truth and honor high, 

A wealth of sunshine's brightest hour 
That sweetens life as moments fly; 

A wealth of music's richest chords 

That wait the touch of magic hand 

Which poetry's rare art affords 
And speaks to hearts that understand. 

Prosaic lessons bring to mind 
The practical details e'er sought 
By zealous craftsmen who would find 
The plans by mystic labor wrought; 

But 'tis the thrill of vibrant notes 
Of euphony's sweet mystic spell 
Which voices all its power denotes 
From spheres where best ideals dwell. 

It pictures to the plastic mind 
Soft tinted shades of beauty rare 
Which ornament each thought refined 
Throughout its teachings everywhere. 

Its grace uplifts the struggling soul; 

Its tones on memory firmly pressed 
Whose chords through human nature roll 
With influences unexposed. 

No other art has greater need 

Of melody's refining song 
Whose beauties rare, by far, exceed 
All others that to her belong, 

For Masonry's sweet lessons ring 
With harmony's delightful strain 
Whose influence ne’er fails to bring 
A host of blessings in its train. 

- Lewis Alexander McConnell. 


A flood of visions sweeps along 
And in the depth we hear a song 
That seems to rule the rushing tide 
With grief for one who nobly died. 

Jacques de Molay dishonor spumed; 
His body at the stake was burned. 
His spirit could not reach the sky 

Contaminated with a lie. 

He died a martyr for the truth 
Which blossoms in eternal youth. 

He died the leader of his clan; 

A hero and a worthy man. 

For centuries around his tomb 
The flowers of admiration bloom. 

Sweet is the incense honor gives; 

Jacques de Molay in glory lives. 

- Francis L. Murphy 

(Courtesy The De Molay Councilor) 


I will not ask my neighbor of his creed; 

Nor what he deems of doctrine, old or new; 
Nor what rites his honest soul may need 
To worship God - the only wise and true; 
Nor what he thinks-of the anointed Christ; 
Nor with what baptism he has been baptized. 
I ask not what temptations have beset 

His humane heart, now self-debased and sore; 
Nor by what wayside well the Lord he met; 
Nor when He uttered, "Go, and sin no more." 
Between his soul and God that business lies; 
Not mine to cavil, question or despise. 

I ask not by which name among the rest 
That Christians go by he is named and known; 
Whether his faith has ever been "professed," 
Or whether proven by his deeds alone; 

So there be Christhood in him, all is well; 

He is my brother, and in peace we dwell. 

If grace and patience in his actions speak, 

Or fall in words of kindness from his tongue, 
Which raise the fallen, fortify the weak, 

And heal the heart by sorrow rent and wrung - 
If he give good for ill, and love for hate - 
Friend of the friendless, poor and desolate - 
I find in him discipleship so true 
So full, that nothing further I demand. 

He may be bondsman, freeman Gentile Jew, 
But we are brothers - walk we hand in land. 

In his white life let me the Christhood see - 

It is enough for him - enough for me. 

By courtesy of the Masonic Journal of South Africa, the editor of which makes the 
following note: 

"A brother writes that many years ago, while sojourning in the 'Bad Lands' of South 
Dakota, he found in an old discarded magazine the above gem. Can anyone tell us the 
name of the author ? 


I cannot bow my head before that seat 
Where men declare their God in darkness dwells; 

I cannot in the spirit touch my feet 

Beside the spring whence wrath-mixed Love outswells. 

He is not that! My God is none to fear 
Or wince from vengeance loosed upon the world; 

But beauty from the farthest shoreless sphere 
And Truth throughout the firmament unfurled. 

I humbly bow my head to all the Good 

That shines from eyes and hands and open hearts; 

And worship at the shrine of Brotherhood 
Where God His love from Soul to Soul imparts. 

Before the Good, the Beautiful, the True, 

Let Mind and Heart stand still in wordless awe! 
For God in man cloth loose the power to view 
The world of worth - the triumph of His law. 

- Gerald Nancarrow. 


With plumbless darkness all-effacing Night 
Descends about our world; it shutteth out 
Familiar scenes, and lies so dark about 
As if the vasty skies were void of light; 

It closes on our lives with such a might 
As mocks at gods, and in its black redoubt 
Of mystery shuts us, till our boldest shout 
Would falter helpless in such infinite! 

But see! the clouds unroll before the living stars 
And empty Night grows populous with forms 
And worlds go brothered through the fearful skies! 
Thus will it prove when we pass o'er the bars 
That hedge our earth, and mount above the storms 
Of time and chance, and into Death arise! 

- H.L.H. 

— o — 

Great Men Who Were Masons 

David Brearley 

By Bro. GEO. W. BAIRD, P. G. M., District of Columbia 

THE Hon. David Brearley, jurist, statesman, soldier, was the first Grand Master of 
Freemasons in New Jersey, and he continued as Grand Master until his death, Aug. 
16, 1790. He was buried with military and Masonic honors. Two Masonic bodies 
were named after him. His portrait which hung upon the walls of Brearley Lodge, at 
Bridgetown, for so many years, has disappeared. 

He was born near Trenton, N. J., in 1741, and was but forty-nine years of age when 
death claimed him. But in that forty-nine years he accomplished much. His 
biographers do not state from what college he was graduated, but do say that he 
practiced law in Allentown; that he was elected Chief Justice of New Jersey June 10, 
1779, and was made Master of Arts by the college of New Jersey. He was Grand 
Master from 1786 to the time of his death. He was state vice-president of the Society 
of the Cincinnati. 

When the trouble between the Colonists and the mother countrymen was fomenting, 
which preceded the War of the Revolution, Judge Brearley was in the front line of the 
Colonists, and was a central figure when hostilities began. He was one of the first 
agitators arrested, was held for trial, but was released by a mob. He promptly joined 
Maswell's brigade, "and became/Lieu". Col. of the Fourth Battalion of 2nd 
Establishment, Nov. 28, 1776." His military record was excellent but he left the army 
to accept the office of Chief Justice of the state. He was then but thirty-four years of 

In the convention which framed the Constitution of the United States, of which he 
was a member, he entered a firm protest against the inequality of representation of the 
several states, and vigorously opposed any joint ballot by the two houses of Congress, 
and his protest prevailed. 

Judge Brearley was president of the New Jersey convention which ratified the 
Constitution of the United States, and he was, also, a presidential elector in 1788. In 
1789 he resigned the position of Chief Justice of the state of New Jersey to accept the 
appointment of Judge of the United States District Court of the state of New Jersey. 

He was one of the compilers of the Protestant Episcopal Prayer Book in 1785; it was 
a grand work. Due to the substitution of republican government for that of 
constitutional monarchy, and to pacify the constituency in both policy and in creed, 
the utmost tact was essential; but his work was so splendidly done that it still excites 
admiration. The prayers are printed; the litany affords the congregation an 
opportunity to participate, which increases their interest; the sermons are short and 

the statutes are so carefully guarded that the pastor, no matter how energetic he is, 
finds it difficult to get outside the confines of his creed. We believe this wise 
provision has had much to do with preventing the Episcopal clergy from yielding (as 
so many other Protestants have done) to the clamour and the pressure of the faddists 
in their congregations to neglect teaching the beautiful life and example of Jesus, and 
to the substitution of suffragism, disarmament, abolition of capital punishment, etc., 
and it clearly shows the profound wisdom and vision of David Brearley, the first 
Grand Master of New Jersey. 

His vision, experience and altruism made him eminently qualified to prepare, or at 
least to superintend, the preparation of that splendid constitution which has preserved, 
without amendment, the great state of New Jersey peaceably and harmoniously intact. 

The picture of the modest little memorial, shown herewith, was given to me by the 
Grand Secretary, Brother Isaac Cherry, who has also annotated this manuscript. It will 
be seen that the little memorial is broken, mutilated. The writer brought this to the 
attention of the congress of the Sons of the American Revolution, hoping that that 
patriotic society may have the little memorial replaced, just as Grand Master Brother 
Sell, of Pennsylvania, did with the damaged memorial of Brother Arthur St. Clair. 

We are not giving sufficient weight to the magnificent characters and examples of our 
early Grand Masters. It is true they had a population capable of understanding pristine 
democracy, and easier to manage; now we have a balance of foreign born, foreign 
prejudiced, proletariat, which has disturbed if not conquered us. Grand Masters of 
today and those looking forward to that office would find it very much worth their 
while to make a careful study of the careers and achievements of the Grand Masters 
of a century ago, especially of the type of David Brearley. 

— o — 


Chapters of Masonic History 

By Bro. H. L. HAYWOOD, Editor 


FROM of old, York has been the Mecca of English Freemasonry, holding some such 
place in the Craft of that land that Mother Kilwinning occupies in the affections of 
Scotch brethren; both hold a prominent place in the Masonic traditions of their 
respective countries, and they are alike hallowed by time. According to a very old 
tradition preserved in the Old Charges the first general assembly of the Craft ever 
held convened in York, under a charter granted by King Athelstan, at the time Prince 
Edwin was made a Mason; it is uncertain how much of this is to stand as actual 
history, for the old writers were much given to accepting hearsay, but there appears to 
be good reason for believing that some kind of Masonic assembly, or assemblies, 
were held in that community. 

"The Old Lodge of York", as it used to be called, was a "time immemorial lodge" and 
worked Speculative Masonry many years before the founding of the first Grand 
Lodge at London in 1717. Somewhere about the year 1725, and tartly as a result of 
the example furnished by the brethren at London, this old lodge blossomed out into a 
Grand Lodge itself, known as the Grand Lodge of all England, a detailed account of 
which, along with the original data, will be found in chapter XVIII of Gould's History 
of Freemasonry, and in chapter eighty-three of Mackey's Revised History of 
Freemasonry. William Preston became identified w ith this Grand body after his 
break with the Grand Lodge at London. 

The Lodge at York is also linked up with the oldest traditions concerning Royal Arch 
Masonry. In 1774 Dr. Fifield Dassigny referred to Royal Arch Masons at York; this 

reference has led our historians to think that the Royal Arch Degree, or degrees, must 
have been practiced there at least as early as 1740. 

The Grand Lodge of all England never came formally to an end, but peacefully 
passed out of existence through absorption by its more powerful rivals. In an 
inventory made in 1779 of its effects six copies of the Old Charges were listed. The 
first of these was described after this fashion: "No. 1 . A parchment roll in three slips, 
containing the constitutions of Masonry, and by endorsement appears to have been 
found in Pontefract Castle at the demolition, and given to the Grand Lodge by 
Brother Drake." The manuscript was in the form of a roll, five inches wide and about 
seven feet in length. The endorsement here mentioned will be found at the bottom of 
the copy published herewith. 

This roll was lost sight of by the York brethren and was accidentally discovered at 
Freemason's Hall, London, by Brother W. J. Hughan. Through his good offices the 
truant document was restored to the York Lodge in 1877, the Earl of Zetland then 
being Grand Master. This "York Roll, No. 1", has been chosen for reproduction here 
as furnishing a typical version of the Legend of the Craft in language sufficiently 
modern to be easily read. 



About At. D. 1600. 

An Anagraime upon the name of Mafonrie 
Willm Kay to his friend Robt Preston 
upon his Artt of Masonic as Followeth: 

Much might be raid of the o noble Attt ~ A Craft thats worth eflieming in each part u, 
Sundry Nations Noobles & their Kings also O Oh how they fought its worth to 

know :z: Nimrod & Solomon the wifell of all men ~ • Reason raw to love this Science 
then - lie fey noe more lea by my Shallow verses I ~ Endeavouring to praife Could 
blemilh Mafonrie. 

Che Constitutions of 


~e might of the Father of heaven with wifedome of ye blessed tonne through ye grace 
of god & goodnefse of ye holy ghoft ye be three pfons in one godhead be with vs at 
our beginning & give vs grace foe to goveme vs here in this life yt we may come to 
his blefsing yt nevr lllall have ending: Ulna good brethren & fellows our purpose is to 
tell yu how and in what manner this worthy Science of Mafonrie was begun & 
afterward how it was found by worthy Kings & princes & by many other Worlhipfull 
men, And alto to then y' be here we will declare ye charge yt belonge to every Free 
Mason to keep ye govrnor of ye worke Mr-dureing ye time it they worke with him & 
other more charges yt is to long here to tell to all there Charges he made them to 
fweare a great Ratio that men ufed in yt time & ordained for them reason" able pay or 
2121agts yt they'might live honestly thereby or - alfo yt they fhould come and 
afsembte themselves together once every yeare to confult how they might belt worke 
for their Fords pfitt & their own credit & to correct within themselves him yt 
trespassed agt ye Science thus was ye Science grounded there & yt worthy Mr Euclid 
divas ye first yt gave it ye name of Geomatrie the wch is now called Mafonrie 
throughout all this nation 9[ul, after yt when ye children of If raell were coma into ye 
land, of Behet; which is now called among us ye Conntrie of Jurie King David begun 
ye Temple yt Is now called' Templm Domi & is named with us ye Temple of 
Jerusalem & ye fd King David loved well Mafons & cherished them much & he gave 
them good wages & he gave them both ye charges & manna as he had learned in 
Egypt given formerly by Euclid and other moe charges yt yu fliall hear afterwards & 
after ye decease of King David Solomon his Son finished out ye fd Temple yt his 
father had begun & he tent for Mafons into divers countreys & of divers Lands ~ 
gathered them together foe it he had four Score thousand workers of Tone & were all 
named Mafons & he chore out of them three thoufand yt was ordained to be Mrs & 

govmors of his worke flnD furthermore there was A King of anothr Region yt men 
called Hieram & he loved King Sollomon well & he gave him Timbr to his worke 
And he had a Sonne named Amon & he was a Mr of Geomatrie ck he was chief Mr of 
all his graveings & Carvings & of all his Mafons ~ Mafonrie as appeares in Scripe in 
Libra primo Rcgnj & Chaptr ye 5th And this Sollomon Confirmed both Charge 
manors at his Feather hurl Liven to Mafons & thus was , , , Country of Jurie & at ye 
City of Jerufalem And in many othr Kingdomes Curious Craftfmen walked abt out 
full wide & fpred themselves into divers Countryes come to Leame [noe craft & 
cunning & come to teach them yt had little Kill & cunning And it befell yt there was 
one Curious Mafon called Namus Gracas yt had beene at ye building of Sollomons 
Temple & he came into ;,ranre & there he taught ye' Science of Mafonrie to men of 
France & there Divas one of Royall line of France called Charles Martall & he was a 
man that loved well such a Craft & he drue to this Namus Grecas above said & he 
learned of him ye Craft & tooke upon him ye charge & mannrs & aftwards by ye 
Providence of God he was elected King of France & when he was in ye Estate he 
tooke & helped to make men Masons wch before were none & gave them both ye 
charge & ye mannrs & good pay as he had learned of othr Masons & also confirmed a 
Chartr from yeare to yeare to hold their Assembly where they would And cherished 
them right much & thus came this famous Craft into France. England in all this time 
stood void of Nasonrie espectialy for any Charge imposed upon yt Science until St. 
Albons time & in his days ye King of England ye was then A pagan did wall ye 
Towne of St. Albons about & St. Albons was a worthy Kt & Steward of ye King's 
Houfhold & had Governance of ye Realme & alto had ye ordering of ye fd Town 
Walls & he Loved well Mafons & cherished them right much & made their pay right 
good considering how wages & other things flood then for he gave them ijS vid a 
week & Ad for their nonfmch & before yt time throughout all this Land a mafon 
tooke but a tent a ba', untill St. Albons advanced it as above fd & pcured them a 
Chartr of ye King & his Counfell whereby for to hold a general! counfell & gave it ye 
name of Afsembly & thereat he was himfelf &; helped to make men Mafons & gave 
them a charge as yu fhall hereaftr hear. But it happened Shortly after ye death of St. 
Albone yt there arofe great warts in England web came out of divers nations foe that 
ye good ordr of Mafonrie was deffroyed untill ye days of King Athelfton who was a 
worthy King of England & brought this land in good refit ~ peace & builded many 
great workes as Abbyes Toures Lo othr manurS of Buildings & loved well mafons & 
he had a Son named Edwin & he loved mafons much more than his Father & he was a 
great practionr inGcomatrie&he delited much to talke-commune with Mafons & to 
learn of them fkill & cunning & afterward for love he bore to mafons & to their 
Science he was made a mafon & he poured for them of ye King his father a chartr & 
Comifsion to hold every yeare an afsembly wherefoevr they would within ye Realm 
of England & to correct within themselves de&tilts & trcfpafses y' were done within 

ye craft & he himself held~an A{semblie at 3 5 ! olh & there he made masons & gave 
them the charge & taught them ye manners & comanded yt rule to be kept ever after ~ 
also tooke for them ye charter to keep & alto gave ,ordr yt it fliould be renued from 
King to King. And when yeAfsembly was gathered together he made pclamation yt 
all old Mafons or young y' had any writhings or undritanding of ye charge & ye 
manurS concerning ye fit Science yt were made before in this Land or any othr yt 
they Should bring them forth & when they had viewed & examined there found fame 
in French, come in Greek, tome in English ~ fame in othr Languages & ye intent & 
meaning of them was found all out & he had made a book thereof how ye Craft was 
founded & he himself gave command yt it should be read or told when yt any -Iafons 
should be made & to give them ye charge And from y' day to this day, Manes of 
Mafons have been kept & observed in yt forme as Bell as men might Obferve & 
goveme it. ulna furthermore at divrfe aLsemblyes an Adition of certaine things in ye 
charge ordained by ye befit advice of Mafters ~ Fcllo\vs - Tunc anus exlcuioribus 
teneatLibrnm et ille rue' ilk pouiat feel poninut manes |UPY Libmm et lunc precasts 
dcbercut Loci - Every man yt is a Macon take right good heed to 'there Charges & if 
any man find himself guilty in any of the charges y' he amend himfelfe before god & 
in pticalarly yee y' are to be charged talce good 


fore faith. And thcrcCore take good heed hereto it is well worthy to be kept well for 
yt ye Science is ancient for there be vij liberal! Sciences of ye wch it is one & ye 
names of ye feven Sciences be there, first -rammfti wch teacheth a man to fpeak truly 
~ write truly. And ye fecond is -jttottthe & teacheth a man to Speak faire plaine in 
subtile termes & ye third is 13F lettich or Lodgick & yt teacheth a man to discern 
truth from fallhood. And ye fourth is ~1rithm~tirh & that teacheth a man to reckon & 
to accompt all manor of numbs And ye fifth is called 4;tomatrie & teacheth all 
measure of grounds & of all other things of ye Welt Science is grounded Mafonric: & 
ye fixth Science is called fflueiche & yt teacheth a man ye Science of Song & violl of 
tongue & organ harp trumpett. And ye feventh Science is called flstronomie & yt 
teacheth a man to know ye courfe of ye Sonne Moonc & Starrs. These be ye Vij 
liberal! Sciences ye wch Seven be all grounded by one yt is to fey Geomatrie for by 
this may a man pve ye Efsence of worke as founded by Geomatrie fo 

i Geomatrie teacheth meat measure ponderation & weight of all manner of things on 
earth for there is noe man y' worketh any Science but he worketh by fome measure or 
weight & all this is Geomatrie, & Marchants & all crafts men & all other of ye vij 
Sciences & ePpetially ye plower & tiller of all manner of graines ~ feeds planters of 
vinyeards [ettS of fruits, for in Grammer retorick nor aftronomie nor in any of all ye 
other liberal! Sciences can any man finde meat or meafure without Geomatrie, ~ me 
thinks yt this Science Geomatrie is moft worthy & foundeth all others. Mobs, these 
worthy Science was first begotten I shall yet tell viz. Before Noah flood there was a 
man called Lamech as is written in Scripture in ye 4th Chaptr of Genesis And this 
Lamech had two u ives ye one named Yeah by whome he had two fons ye one named 
Jabell ye other named Jubell. And his other wife was called Zillah by whome he had 
one fone named Tubelcaine & one daughter named Naamah & there four children 
founded ye beginning of all ye Sciences in ye world viz Jabell ye eldeft Sone found 
out ye Science of Geomatrie & he was a keepr of flocks of flieep & Lands in the 
Fields as it is noted in ye Chaptr before sd And his brothr Juball found ye Science of 
Muf~cke Song of Tongue harpe & organ And ye third Brother Tuball Caine found ye 
Science called Smithcraft of Gold Silk Iron Coppr & Steele & ye daughtr found ye art 
of Weaving And there perforis knowing right well yt God would take vengeance for 
finne either by fire or water, wherefore they writt their feverall Sciences yt they had 
found in two llflTer. of Tone yt they might be found aftr Noah his Flood And ye one 
Tone was Marble because it would not bume wth fire & ye othr called Ltemes 
because it would not around Wth watr. now our Intent is to tell yu how and in what 
manner there stones b,rre fount in web there Sciences were written the ancient 
Hermarnies was a Cube his Son ye which Cub was Sem yt was Noahs 

a_. . .L~ Arms:~0- 1 10~ Tome (tar hi {' 

ise men he found one of ye two pilfers of Stone & he found ye Sciences written 
therein & he fought yt to other men, And at ye makeing of ye Route of 36abell there 
was Mafonrie at first much efteemed of & the King of Babilon yt was called Nimrod 
was A mafon himself & loved well Mafons & yt Science as it is faid amonge Mafters 
of Hiftories. And when ye 4titE of -ittebte & othr cities of ye Eaft (hould be builded 
Nimrod ye King of Babylon bent thither lx Mafons. at ye requeft of ye King of 
Ninevie his Coufen and when he fent them forth he gave them a charge on this manor 
yt that they fhould be true each one of them to othr & yt they fhould love well one 
anothr ~ yt they should ferve their Lord truly for their pay foe yt ye maffr may have 
pay & all that belongeth unto him & othr moo charges he gave them 8: this was ye 

first time yt ever any Mafone had any charge of his Craft. Moreover Abrahm & Sarah 
his wife went ins<> Elegy pt And there l~c taught ye vij Sciences to ye Egyptians ~ 
he had a worthy Scholler named Euclid 8; he learned right well & was Mr of all. ye 
vij Sciences liberal! & in his dayes it befell y' ye Lordes & States of ye Lands had foe 
many Sons come by their wives & come by their concubines for y' land is a hott land 
& plentious of Genration 8; they had not a competent prportion of ellate wherewith to 
maintains their fd Cilildrcn, wherefore they tooke much care & the King of y' land 
caufcd a great council & fumaned a parliament to consult how they mighte pvide for 
their children whereon they mighte live honestly as Gentlemen & they could finde 
noc manor of good way And then they made a pclamation throughout all ye Rcalme 
y' if there any yt could informe them therein yt he Should come to ym & he fhould be 
well rewarded for his travaile fo y' he fhould hould himfelfe fattisfied. After this 
pclamation was made came this worthy Clark Euclid & faid to ye King & to his 
Nobles if yu will except of me to teach inDruct 8: governs yr children in ye vij 
Sciences whereby they might live honc~cly as Gentlemen I {hall do it upon condicon 
y' you will grant me & them a Comifsion y' I may have power to rule them after ye 
manner ye Sciences ought to be ruled we', ye King & all ye Counfell granted him & 
Sealed ye Comifsion Bttl 1 tights this worthy Doctor tooke to himself Lords Sonnes 
& tonight them ve Science of Geomatrie & practice to worke in Stones all manner of 
worthy work y' bclongeth to building Churches Temples Caftles Toures mannoS & all 
manner of Buildings & gave them in ttijarge on this manner 

FirR y' they {hould be true to y' King & to ye Lord yt they fcrve & y' they [hould love 
well on another & .y' they hould be true one to anothr & yt they should call each other 
his Fellow or his Brother & not his Serv' or Knave or.othr foule name 8: yt they 
should truly deserve their pay of their Lord or ye Mr yt they ferve & yt they should 
ordaine ye wifeft of them to be Mr of ye worke & neithr to chute for Love nor 
erection nor great nor riches to fett any yt bath not,fufficient Knowledge and cunning 
in ye worke to be Mr Of ye worke whereby ye Mr should be evill Served 


prillous.k great danger for a man to forfweare himself upon ye holy Scripture. Zl)e 
Brat (klarge is that~he or thou be true man to god & ye holy church & y' yet use 
neithr erour nor hcrcfie according to yOr own undemanding or discreet ~ wife mens 

teaching & alfo y' he Hall be true lege man & bear true Alcgiance to ye King of 
England without any treason or any othr falll-ood & if they know of any treason or- 
treachery yt you amend it privily if ye may or else wame ye Wing or his counfell of it 
by declareing it to ye Magistrates. And alfoe yee fhall be true one to anothr yt is to 
fey to every Mafon of ye Craft of Mafonrie yt be allowed Mafons yu {hall doe to 
them as yu would they should doe to yu And yt yu keep truely all yecounfell of 
Lodge & chamber & all other counfell yt ought to be kept by way of Mafonrie & alfo 
yt yu ufe noe theeverie but keep yorfelves true. And alfo yu fhall be true to ye Lord or 
Maftr yu ferve & truly fee his pfitt & advantage pmoted & furthred. And alfo you 
fhall call Mafons yor Brethren or Lellows but not any other foul name. Alfo yu Hall 
not take in villany yor Lellows wife nor unlawfully desire his daughtr or fervt nor put 
him to any discredit. And alfo yt yu pay truly for yor meat & drink where yu goe to 
table & yt yu doe not any thing whereby ye craft may be Scandalized or whereby it 
may receive disgrace. Thefe be ye Charges in general! that belongeth every Mafon to 
keep both Maters & Lellows now come for to rehearse certaine of ye charges 
Angularly for Maffrs & Lellows viz That noe Mr take upon him any Lords Work or 
any other mens work except he know himself to be of fuficient fkill & Conings to 
pform &.fmifh ye fame foe yt ye Craft thereby receive noe flander or discredit but y' 
ye Lord may be wet ferved & have his work truly & {u6ciently done And alfo yt noe 
Mr take any work at unreasonable rates but to Reasonably yt ye Lord or ownr may be 
true frved wth his own goods 8: ye Mr to live honestly thereby & to pay his fellows 
truly their wages as ye manor is. And alfo that no Mr or Lellow {hall fuplant anothr 
of his work yt is to fey if any Mr or Lellow have faked any work to doe & therefore 
ftand as Mr of ye fd work yee fhall not put him out of it unlefs he be unable of fkill & 
Cuning to pform ye fame to ye end & alfo yt noe Mr or Lellow take any appmtice 
undr yeterme of Seven years & yet fuch apmtice fuficiently able of body & found of 
his lyMbs & alfo of good birth free bom noe Alian but descended of a tme & honeft 
kindred & noe bondman & alfo yt noe mason take any ap~ntice unlefs he have 
fuficient occupation whereon to employ two or three Lellows at ye leafs And alfo y' 
noe Mr or Lellow put any to take any Lords work yt was wont to worlt Journey work 
And alfo yt every Mr fhall give wages to his Tellowes according to his worke cloth 
deserve y' he be not deceived by falfe work. And alfo yt none fhall flan dr anothr 
behinde his back whereby he may loofe either his good name or wordly riches & alfo 
yt no fellow within ye Lodge or without fhall mif-an h wer or reprove unlawfully 
anothr without cause. 

put him to honour & alfo yt noe Mafon fhall be a comon player att cards or dice or 
any othr unlawful! game or games whereby ye Science may be flandered & disgraced' 
& alfo yt noe fellow at any time goe from his fellowes of ye Lodge into any towne 

adjoining except he have a fellow with him to witness yt he was in honeR place & 
civil 1 company. And alfo ye every Mr & fellow shall come to ye Afsemblie of 
Mafons if it be within: I: mile about him if he have any warning of ye fame. And if he 
or they have trespassed or offended againft ye craft all fuch foe trefpEsing shall stand 
there at ye award & Arbitration of ye Maftrs & Fellowes there ~ they to make them 
accord if they can or may & if they canot agree them then to goe to ye comon Law & 
alfo yt no Mr or Fellow make any would rule or Square for any Layer nor fet any 
Layer within ye Lodge or without to hew any mould Stones. And that every Mafon 
fhall cherifh grange fellowes when they come out of othr Countreys ~ net them on 
work if he can as ye mane is viz if he have no Stones nor moulds in y' place he shall 
refresh him wth money to fuply his necefityes untill he come at ye next Lodge. And 
alfo y' every Mafon Mali pforme his work truly ~ not fleightily for his pay but to 
nerve his Lord truly for his wages ~ alfo yt every Mr fhall truly finish ~ make an end 
of his work whether it be by tax or by Jorney viz by measure or by dayes If he have 
his pay ~ all othr coverts pformed to him by ye Lord of ye work according to ye 
bargaine. Z[IgrHe Charges yt we have now rehearsed to ytt & to all othS here prfent 
Wch belongeth to Mafons yu {hall well ~ truly keep to yOr powr fo help you god ~ 
by ye contents of yt booke - Amen. 


Found in Pontefract Castle at the Demolishing, and Given to this Lodge 
by Francis Drake, 1732. 


MACKEY'S ENCYCLOPAEDIA (Revised Edition). Edwin, 231; Antiquity 
Manuscript, 66; Athelstan, 85; Old Records, 612; York Constitutions, 866; York 
Grand Lodge, 867; York Legend, 867; York Manuscripts, 870; York Rite, 871. 

— o — 



The wise pundits who think they know a thing or two tell us that Christmas as a gift- 
giving festival, a season of merry making and good cheer, was invented by 
Washington Irving and Charles Dickens, the first conceiving the idea, the second, 
through the infectiousness of his stories, giving it currency. One is not to believe a 
word of this. Christmas is as old as the hills, it is as ancient as God. Like the stars that 
glitter above its frosty skies it has never had a beginning and can have no end. It had 
its origin in time when the first man felt a glow of gladness to see the sun turn in his 
tracks at mid- winter toward warmth again; toward spring, when the animals would 
awake in their dens, and green spread along the hills. But its true origin, lying outside 
of time, was in the heart of man himself, so that under one form or another it has 
always existed, and always will. It is a voice coming through the wintry darkness, like 
the quick golden cry of trumpets, to tell us that the gods of light are neither dead nor 
sleeping; it is an angel in the tomb announcing Easter days. 

Christmas has its permanent and prominent place in Masonry in the form of St. 

John’s Day, the observance of which by the Craft is of exceedingly ancient date. 

Long ago our brethren were wont to hold processions on that day, with an hour of 
worship at some beloved altar, and candles burning. And we, in our turn and with our 
own manner, do likewise, albeit ours is the lodge room altar, with observances and 
feasts among ourselves. 

St. John's Day is one of the best opportunities of the year for a wise Worshipful 
Master when, more than at any other time, he can permit the hidden heart of Masonry 
to reveal itself. Why shouldn't he hold a Christmas festival among his brethren? He 
could mail out a personal invitation to each and every one' not forgetting those out of 
town, and include the wives and children. These could gather for an evening in the 
lodge room, decorated in Christmas fashion, for a feast and a program. There could be 
special letters and remembrances for the sick and the shut-ins and a few quiet acts of 
charity on the side. Upon such an occasion the lodge orators might be persuaded to 

remain silent to give the children a chance, who have ways for warming the cockles 
of one's heart, though they may stutter and forget their pieces. Soloists also might be 
left out so that everybody could join in the music, old songs and Christmas glees. 
Santa Claus could show up at the last; and before “Auld Lang Syne” is sung there 
could be a prayer by way of remembrance for those gone to the Grand Lodge above. 
On such an occasion as that, with the vaudevillians and the paid entertainers at a safe 
distance, the brethren would learn anew that the tie of Masonry, though it is secret 
and mystic, is after all human and simple, like all the bonds that unite us men. Would 
not that be a beautiful Lodge Christmas ? It would be a kind of translation into deeds 
and words of the sweetest Christmas poetry since the first Christmas story was 
written two thousand years ago: 

I heard the bells on Christmas Day 
Their old familiar carols play, 

And wild and sweet 
The words repeat 

Of peace on earth, good-will to men. 

* * * 


Masonic lodges are forbidden to participate in politics or similar activities, and 
Freemasons are forbidden to carry that name with them into any political or Religious 
but there is nothing to hinder lodges or individual Masons from being interested in a 
non-political, non-sectarian plan for discovering some method to establish peace in 
the world such as that proposed some months ago by Edward Bok, when he offered 
prizes aggregating $100,000 for the best suggestion made to secure that much prayed 
for end of war. The contest itself closed Nov. 15. The jury of award, consisting of J. 

G. Harbord, E. M. House, Ellen F. Pendleton, Roscoe Pound, Elihu Root, William 
Allen White and Brand Whitlock) will announce its decision on or about Jan. 1 . ' 

It is the purpose of the Policy Committee of the American Peace Award to submit a 
draft of the plan selected to the American people in order to secure the verdict of the 
entire American citizenship thereon, and means for the same will be furnished at the 
earliest possible date. The National Masonic Research Society has been asked to join 
with a group of other representative Masonic organizations to bring this home to the 
attention of all American Masons, a thing it has cheerfully consented to, and now 
does. N. M. R. S. officials hope that all members of the Society will make it a point to 
express their opinions of the plan selected in due course of time, especially since the 
purpose of the Award is so closely in line with one of the great ends of Freemasonry - 
the establishment of a reign of peace, fellowship and good will throughout the world. 

F. H. Fittlefield. 

* * * 


In the Masonic year now passing out the death of Brother Warren G. Harding, 
President of the United States, came with a sense of personal loss to his brethren and 
cast a shadow all the darker for its being thrown into relief against a background 
otherwise so bright, for 1923 has been, in many ways, the best the American Craft has 
ever known. Brother Harding was a man of simple instincts, much nearer to the 
people than most, though he lacked the faculty of arousing enthusiasm in the mass. In 
his nature he was essentially a fraternal man. 

He felt a sincere interest in our Craft, and never hesitated to say as much in public, so 
that it was in the fitness of things that one of his last acts as President was to send his 

secretary to Los Angeles with an address to the Knights Templar. There was nothing 
more Masonic about him than his character, which was stainless, and always held 
within the limits circumscribed by the compasses and based upon the square. He saw 
in Freemasonry a bond uniting north and south and all other sections beside; an 
influence making for religious and political toleration; a solvent of racial prejudices; a 
witness to the underlying democracy of American life. If he preferred to walk along 
the great Main street of the nation, as his critics sometimes sarcastically averred, it 
was because he felt that we all belong there, and that in this land there is no King's 
Highway for the elect. 

The Craft was proud to have him in the White House, not because he gave us special 
privileges, which is a thing we do not ask, but because he was an exemplification of 
so many things for which we stand. In the long hereafter of our Craft, when brethren 
of the far future come to make up their book of memory, they will keep a page for this 
brother and President who, in a high station, held aloft the lamp of fellowship and 
good will. 

* * * 


This month's frontispiece shows one of the most remarkable feats of operative 
Masonry ever accomplished by the hand of man, It is the facade of a strangely 
beautiful temple, the body of which was hewn out of the living rock by workmen 
long, long ago. Petra, the famous "lost city" of Syria, was in ancient times the capital 
of the Nabataeans, or Early Arabs, whose kingdom flourished between 300 B. C. and 
200 A. D. It was annexed by Trajan in 105 A. D., attracting at the time a great deal of 
interest among Roman writers, Pliny among them, who wrote that "the Nabataei 
inhabit a city called Petra in a hollow somewhat less than two miles in circumference, 
surrounded by inaccessible mountains, with a stream running through it." (vi, 28.) 

With the downfall of the kingdom and the scattering of its people Petra became lost, 
existing only in the dim memories of the Near East as a sacred city built by jinns and 
later removed by them into heaven. When Volney in 1787 was exploring about Gaza 
he learned from the Arabs that an ancient deserted city lay in the Wady Musa but was 
not able to visit its site. The Arabs, however, had been there, and one of his guides 
exclaimed to him, "Ah, how I weep when I behold the ruins of Wady Musa!" It was 
not until Burekhardt visited the place in 1 812 that any European was actually able to 
verify the Arabs' report; and it was he, later seconded by Ritter, who identified Wady 
Musa with the Petra of the Nabataeans. 

But even so very few travelers were able to make their way to it until in recent years, 
and then largely owing to the World War having taken so many Europeans into Syria. 
It has been reported that one soldier found a square and compass carved above the 
entrance to a Petra building; this is worthy of investigation by somebody in the Craft, 
for it would throw a new light on secret societies in the Near East. Thus far we have 
been unable to verify this or to find any brother sufficiently well informed to furnish a 
full account of the matter. Any information at all will be welcomed by THE 

— o 


Early Freemasonry: in New York State 

Lang, Grand Lodge Historian. Published by Grand Lodge of New York. May be 
purchased through National Masonic Research Society 1950 Railway Exchange, St. 
Louis. Blue Cloth, 225 pages, including index. $2.00 net. 

The story of Freemasonry in the State of New York is as interesting as the history of a 
nation: all the elements are there, the dramatic surprises, the strifes and dissensions, 
wars, rebellions and insurrections, the presence of a manifest destiny throughout, the 
pervading sense of momentousness, and a climax of power and fame. It is a theme 
worthy of the pen of a Gibbons or Macaulay. 

In the present volume, written under orders from the Grand Lodge of New York, 
Brother Ossian Lang has been obliged to content himself with a brief and solidly 
condensed account, paying most attention to matters of fact and of date, and more 
particularly such data as concerns what one may describe as the "political history" of 
the Craft in the Empire State. The treatment is terse, reserved, and often abrupt in its 
sudden transitions, sometimes too abrupt one may believe, at least for the reader not 
already familiar with the story in its entirety. There is a maximum of bare fact, a 
minimum of human appeal, and nothing at all of the developments in Masonic 
thought or ritual or what in general Albert Pike described as the "soul" of Masonry. 
The book is not a running narrative but more in the nature of a brief encyclopaedia. 
As such it is excellently done, and well informed. Brother Lang is in love with the 
theme. Also he writes as a scholar in search for the facts, with no favorite side to 
defend or cause to plead, which is very much to his credit. 

The first chapter is a rapid account of the general history of Freemasonry designed to 
serve as a background for the story in hand; the second is an account of "Masonic 
beginnings in America." 

"The oldest well authenticated Lodge in America was a St. John's Lodge known to 
have been at work in Philadelphia, in 1730, and presumably it could trace its 
existence to an even earlier year. Available records, dating from 1731, establish the 
fact of its operation beyond any reasonable doubt. This Lodge, like the old Lodge at 
York, in England, met sometimes as a private Lodge and sometimes as a Grand 
Lodge, self-constituted. Benjamin Franklin became a member of it, in 1731, was 
elected Junior Grand Warden in 1732, and Grand Master in 1734. As he published, in 
173i, a reprint of the Anderson Constitutions of 1723, he must have been fully aware 
of the Regulations adopted in 1721. Quite evidently he never doubted the regularity 
of his Grand Lodge, though he was not so sure whether this would be 'countenanced' 
abroad, and he admitted as much, when he wrote, a few months after his election as 

Grand Master, that the Fraternity in Philadelphia seems to want the sanction of some 
authority derived from home to give the proceedings and determinations of our Lodge 
their due weight.’ Nevertheless, the ‘Pocket Companion for Free Masons,’ printed at 
Dublin, in 1735, includes in its list of lodges the following item: 

"'116. The Hoop, in Water street, in Philadelphia. 1st Monday.' 

"Thus it would seem that in Ireland at least the Lodge was recognized as Masonic." 
(Pages 7-8.) 


Several of the oldest lodges in the land were organized before American Grand 
Lodges existed, or any Provincial Grand Masters had been appointed from England. 
These were "time immemorial" lodges; " 'duly constituted' was applied to every lodge 
in possession of a lawful charter from a Grand Body of competent jurisdiction 
empowering it to work." 

"The distinction of being the first 'duly constituted' Lodge in America, belongs no 
doubt to the First Lodge of Boston which was established on July 30, 1733, by 
authority of Henry Price, deputed Provincial Grand Master for New England. Price's 
authority has been questioned and is not altogether unimpeachable; nevertheless, the 
First Lodge in Boston was recognized officially by the premier Grand Lodge of 
England, and that ought to be good enough warrant for accrediting it as 'duly 
constituted' end the first of its kind in America." (Pages 10-11.) 

Daniel Coxe (Brother Lang also spells it "Cox") was the first to receive formal 
deputation from the Grand Lodge of England to govern the Craft in the ;Colonies; his 
jurisdiction was defined as covering New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. His 
successors and their several jurisdictions are shown in tabular form: 

"Consulting the published records of the Grand Lodge of England, we find that the 
only deputations to Provincial Grand Masters for various parts of North America, 
there mentioned, were the following: 

"In 1729, by the Duke of Norfolk, Grand Master, to Mr. Daniel Cox, for New Jersey 
in America. 

"In 1736, by the Earl of Loudoun, Grand Master, to Robert Tomlinson, Esq., for New 
England; John Hammerton, Esq., for South Carolina. 

"In 1737, by the Earl of Darnley, Grand Master, to Richard Riggs, Esq., for New 

"In 1742, by Lord Ward, Grand Master, to Thomas Oxnard, Esq., for North America. 

"In 1747, 1748, 1749, 1750, 1751, by Lord Byron, Grand Master to Wm. Allen, Esq., 
Recorder of Philadelphia, for Pennsylvania in America; Francis Goelet, Esq., for the 
Province of New York. 

"In 1752, 1753, by Lord Carysfort, Grand Master, to George Harrison, Esq., for the 
Province of New York. 

"In 1754, 1755, by the Marquis of Carnarvan, Grand Master to Peter Leigh, Esq., 
Chief Justice of South Carolina, for South Carolina; Jeremiah Gridley, Esq., for all 
North America, where no Provincial is appointed. 

"In 1758, 1759, 1760, 1761, 1762, by Lord Aberdour, Grand Master, to Grey Elliot, 
for the Province of Georgia; Benjamin Smith, Esq., Speaker of the House Assembly 
at Carolina, for Carolina." (Pages 12-13.) 


The first public announcement of a duly authorized assembly of Masons was carried 
in the New York Gazette of Jan. 22, 1739, and reads thus: 

"Brethren of the Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons are 
desired to take notice that the Lodge for the future will be held at the Montgomerie 
Arms Tavern on the first and third Wednesdays of every month. By order of the 
Grand Master. 

“Charles Wood, Secretary.” (Page 28.) 

The oldest New York City lodge now existing is St. John's, No. 1, warranted in 1787. 
Four lodges outside of New York City can trace their history to days before the 
Declaration of Independence: Mt. Vernon, No. 3, at Albany; Master's, No. 5, Albany; 
St. Patrick's, No. 4, Johnstown; and St. George's, No. 6, Schenectady. 

Sir John Johnson, son of Sir William Johnson, founder of the St. Patrick's Lodge just 
referred to, was the last Provincial Grand Master of the state, having been installed in 
1771. Sir John was a Tory of the Tories, so that when the Revolution broke out he left 
for Canada to join the Royalists, taking his deputation with him. 

Solomon's Lodge, No. 1, was the last to be warranted by Sir John's predecessor in 
office, under date of April 18, 1771, Robert R. Livingston, later Grand Master, being 
named as the first W. M. In the minutes of that lodge of date May 16, 1781, appears 
this item: "Ordered that the name of Benedict Arnold be considered as obliterated 
from the Minutes of this Lodge." 

Chapter VII, on "Military Lodges," is very interesting as furnishing a clue to much 
that followed. 

"The practice of granting warrants to Masons in the military and naval service 
empowering them to form Lodges in the regiments or other units to which they were 
attached, originated in Ireland. The premier Grand Lodge of England followed the 
precedent. Scotland also gave encouragement to the plan. After the Antients got under 
way, they, too, granted such migratory warrants. Wherever the warrant was, there was 
the Lodge. The very nature of the consequent instability suggests that the records of 
these traveling Lodges could not be kept accurately, and that the task of following 
their fortunes must prove an almost hopeless one. Nevertheless, the ambulant Lodges 
played an important part in the spreading of Freemasonry and left behind them in 
many places nuclei of stationary Lodges which would in the course of time receive 
due recognition from whatever lawful Masonic authority might be applied to for 

One of these was Washington, No. 10. "The great Lafayette, who is known to have 
been made a Mason in America, appears to have- been initiated in this lodge named 
after his revered friend." (Page 49.) 


American Union Lodge, organized under a military charter, started a move to 
organize a National Grand Lodge at a festival held on St. John Evangelist Day, 1779, 
which was attended by "Brother Washington." A petition was prepared for 
presentation to the Provincial Grand Masters, closing with these words: 

"Considering the present situation of our lodges and Masonry in general, the necessity 
for the honor of the Craft, and the importance of enjoying the benefits of so valuable 
an institution, that some exceptions are-made for checking the present irregularities, 
restoring peace and harmony to the lodges and for the reestablishment of the Order on 
the ancient respectable founder lion, which we conceive can never be done more 
effectively than by the appointment of a Grand Master in and over the United States 
of America. 

"We, therefore, most earnestly request that the present Provincial Grand Masters in 
the respective said United States would take some measures for the appointment of a 
Grand Master in and over the said Thirteen United States of America. 

"The gathering greeted the proposition with enthusiasm and voted 'that the petition be 
circulated through the different lines of the army, and that a committee be appointed 
from the different lodges in the army, from each line and from the staff, to convene 
on the first Monday of February to take the foregoing petition into consideration.’ 

The proposed convention was held on the appointe day. There were ten delegates 
representing American Union, St. John’s Regimental, Washington, No. 10, and the 
Masons of seven States. General Mordecai Gist, who later became Grand Master of 
Masons in South Carolina, was chosen to preside. An address was formulated asking 
the Provincial Grand Masters in America to help promote the establishment of a 
supreme Grand Lodge for the United States under one Grand Master General 'to 
preside over and govern all other lodges of whatsoever degree or denomination, 
licensed or to be licensed upon the continent.' Much discussion and correspondence 
followed the issuance of the address, but the dream was never realized. Georgia, the 
Carolinas, Maryland, and other States revived the idea from time to time, but it failed 
to commend itself to the Craft, which looked upon a centralization of power with 
suspicion." (Pages 54-55.) 

In this same American Union Lodge, the most famous of all the military lodges, 
General Rufus Putnam was initiated, as was also Colonel John Brooks, later Governor 
of Massachusetts. 

It is a singular fact, and often noted, that whereas in most of the other colonies lodges 
chartered by the Antient Grand Lodge of England were patriotic, those chartered by 
the Modem Grand Lodge were largely Tory, in the New York Colony the opposite 
was the case; Brother Lang explains this anomaly as follows: 

"Although Freemasonry in New York issued from the premier Grand Lodge of 
England, all the Lodges formed under these auspices were essentially training schools 
of American patriots, while the Lodges constituted by the Antients, which formed the 
organization from which our present Grand Lodge, officially, derives its existence, 
were composed almost wholly of British soldiers and officials bent on preventing the 
success of the Revolution. In New England it was not so, nor in most of the other 
States. The fact that the city of New York was occupied by the British accounts no 
doubt for the difference." (Page 57.) 


The Antient Grand Lodge above mentioned was organized in England in or near the 
year 1751 as a rival to the already existing Grand Lodge, organized in London, 1717, 
and which came to be dubbed by its younger rival as the "Modern" Grand Lodge. 

"In the British Regiments ordered to America to suppress the rising rebellion of the 
colonies, there were a large number of military Lodges which managed to leave a 
marked influence on Masonic development, particularly in the city of New York. The 
majority of these Lodges had been warranted by the Grand Lodge of the Antients, 
then better known as the Atholl Grand Lodge of England, the Duke of Atholl being its 
Grand Master at that time. The few Lodges holding warrants from Ireland or Scotland 
worked in close harmony with the Antients, the ritual and customs of the three Grand 
Lodges being very much alike, while differing in some points from the system of the 
premier Grand Lodge of England. Eventually the Antients gained the upper hand. 
Their principal merit was that they kept close to the humanity of the great middle 
class, preserved the original democracy of the Craft and saved Masonry from 
becoming an aristocratic institution, or a fraternity of snobs. That is the glory of the 

Antients, which nobody can deny them. They were a thorn in the flesh of the premier 
Grand Lodge, a thorn it needed to keep it from exalting itself above measure." ( Page 
59. ) 

The lodges organized in the city of New York under Antient charters were in a better 
position to work together than the lodges scattered "up state," so that it was a natural 
order of evolution for them to seek to form themselves into a Provincial Grand 
Lodge. This was done under a warrant issued by the Antient (or Atholl) Grand Lodge, 
dated Sept. 5, 1781, which warrant is printed in full. The Rev. William Walter was 
chosen Grand Master. 

British troops evacuated the city Nov. 25, 1783. This had its effect on the Provincial 
Grand Lodge, composed as it was so largely of Royalists, and the Grand Master, 
himself a chaplain of De Lancey’s 3 rd Battalion, was forced to leave for Nova Scotia. 
He resigned, took affectionate leave of his brethren, and had the good grace to leave 
the Grand Lodge warrant behind. He was succeeded by William Cock, who in turn 
was followed by one of the first of the truly statesman-like leaders of early New York 
Freemasonry, Robert R. Livingston. Under Livingston's leadership, and with the old 
Atholl warrant as a basis, the first real sovereign Grand Lodge of the state was 
formed; and he governed it with so much wisdom that in the course of time every 
lodge in the state came under its jurisdiction with one exception, and no fewer than 
eighty-three lodges were added to the roll under his Grand Mastership. Livingston 
was a great man. 

"At the inauguration of the first President of the Republic it was Robert R. Livingston 
who administered the oath of office to George Washington. In 1801 he was appointed 
United States Minister to France by President Jefferson, and he negotiated 
successfully for the Louisiana purchase. His services to New York and to the United 
States won him a high place in the affections of the people, and his death in 1813 was 
mourned as a public calamity." (Page 80.) 

Apropos of the inauguration incident Brother Lang takes the opportunity to tell the 
story, never repeated too often, of the Bible on which George Washington took his 
oath of office.. 

"With the fact that Grand Master Livingston, by virtue of his office as Chancellor of 
the State, administered to George Washington the inauguration oath on April 30, 
1789, there is connected an historical incident of keenest interest to the Fraternity. 

"The marshal of the day was General Jacob Morton, who was Master of St. John's 
Lodge, No. 1, at that time, and later became Grand Master of the State. The honor of 
escorting Washington was accorded to General Morgan Lewis, who also became a 
Grand Master in later years. 

"When Chancellor Livingston rose to perform the part of the program assigned to him 
it was found that no Bible had been provided. From the Federal Hall, on Wall street, 
where the inauguration of the first President of the Republic took place, to the 
meeting rooms of St. John's Lodge was a distance of only a few steps. General 
Morton went quickly and brought the altar Bible of the Lodge, resin a cushion of 
crimson velvet. Upon this Masonic Bible the first President was sworn." (Pages 80- 

Brother Warren G. Harding, still lamented, took oath on this same Bible on March 4, 


Of the early Grand Masters DeWitt Clinton was the most famous; he was first elected 
in 1806 and retained office until and including 1819. 

"Dewitt Clinton was a constructive statesman of remarkable ability and phenomenal 
popularity in his time. He was instrumental in establishing the foundation of the great 
education system of the State, and carried through the opening of the Erie Canal 
almost single-handed. These two achievements alone mark him as one of the master 
builders of the polity of the State. As Masons we owe him particular gratitude for his 
zeal for the Fraternity which, under his leadership, became a power for good in civil 
life. DeWitt Clinton died in 1828. His life was one of service to mankind. Honorable 
in all his dealings, wholly devoted to the advancement of the welfare of his 
fellowmen, he will ever be remembered as a true exemplar of Freemasonry by the 
Fraternity over whose affairs he presided as Grand Master for fourteen years." 

The course of New York Grand Fodge history was anything but smooth. Way back in 
1785 friction developed between the "city" lodges and the "country" lodges, resulting 
in the formation of a short lived secessionist Grand Fodge. Again in 1820 a similar 
move was made under the leadership of Daniel Tompkins; and still another, much 
more famous, was headed by the irritating and irritable Henry C. Atwood: Atwood, 
Folger, and Foulhouze, these were three of a kind, all stormy petrels of controversy, 
and lovers of a fight. The secession managed by them lasted until 1 850 when a 
reunion was effected under brilliant circumstances. The "City Grand Fodge" under 
Tompkins once had the honor to entertain Fafayette in 1824 at the time of his 
revisiting the country. 

The limitation of space makes it impossible to quote as one would wish from the 
chapters on the Morgan affair; the Anti-Masonic movement that followed it; or the 
effect of the Civil War; nor is there space for noting a number of interesting details, 
such as the laying of the cornerstone of the Egyptian Obelisk at Central Park, an 
object that has appealed to the antiquarian instincts of many Masonic scribes; and the 
laying of the cornerstone of the statue of the Goddess of Fiberty in New York harbor 
in 1884. 1 shall however make space for one paragraph concerning the Civil War as 
having especial pertinency just now when we are beginning to feel the reactions after 
our own recent World War. 

"It is interesting to note, in passing, that, after the war had ended, membership of the 
Fodges increased by leaps and bounds. This peculiar phenomenon is revealed again, 
in our day, when all Grand Fodges report staggeringly large afterwar gains in 

numbers. In 1861, there were, in the State of New York, 30,835 Master Masons 
affiliated with the regular Lodges; in 1871, that number had risen to 77,079. The 
increase in the population of the State, during this same period, was less than 40 per 
cent, while that of the Fraternity was almost 150 per cent. It is significant, too, that, 
after rising, in 1876, or about ten years after the close of the war, to 83,594, the 
membership fell off rapidly, due to non- affiliation, so that in 1881, or five years after 
the high-water mark had been reached, there were only 71,788 Master Masons in 
good and regular standing." (Page 150.) 

There are chapters on Masonic Hall, Twenty-third street; Centenary of Grand Lodge; 
Masonic Home at Utica; War Work of the Craft; and Recent Developments, in which 
last is featured the very excellent work being done by the Grand Lodge's Bureau of 
Social and Educational Service under the exceptionally able directorship of Brother 
Sidney Morse. 

In many ways the most interesting chapter in the book is that devoted to "Common 
School Beginnings and the Grand Lodge," the bulk of which, with the author's 
consent, may be here given: 


"On April 9, 1805, the Legislature passed 'An Act to incorporate the Society instituted 
in the City of New York, for the establishment of a free school, for the education of 
poor children, who do not belong to, or are not provided for by any religious society.' 
No financial aid was given. 

"The original intention seems to have been to include religious instruction in the 
course. The plan finally adopted was to set apart a period when representatives of 
different denominations might gather adherents of their faith in separate classes for 

"In 1809, the first school building (at Chatham Street and Tyron Row) was opened 
with impressive services, DeWitt Clinton delivering an eloquent address on that 

"At a quarterly meeting of the Grand Lodge, on Dec. 7, 1808, a committee had been 
appointed 'to devise and report to this Grand Lodge a plan for the education of 
children of poor Masons.’ This committee reported, in 1809, recommending that a 
fund be raised ‘sufficient to defray the expense of an establishment to consist of fifty 
children. ’ In order to ascertain the probable expense of tuition, including all books 
and supplies necessary for the purpose, the committee had had several conferences 
with the trustees of the free school, who 'agreed to educate in their seminary fifty 
children constantly, for three hundred dollars annually, which is more than one-half 
less than would be required for their education in a separate school.' 

"The Grand Lodge was asked to contribute eighty dollars a year, to make up the three 
hundred dollars required to carry the plan into effect. 

"Each Lodge which contributed to the fund was to have the right of 'naming two 
children to receive the benefit of this charity.' Six places were assigned to the Grand 
Lodge School Committee, which was also given authority to fill 'all vacancies that 
may occur from the individual Lodge declining or neglecting to recommend as 

"On March 7, 1810, the Grand Lodge School Committee reported that on 'St. John's 
Day last' (Dec. 27, 1809), they had 'delivered over to the trustees of the New York 
Free School the said number of children; that the individual Lodges have each 
furnished the number contemplated in the said resolution, except in one instance, 
which vacancy was particularly filled by your committee, but for a short space of time 
only.' The committee further reported that 'from the declaration of the teacher of the 
said school, from information obtained from the parents and guardians of the children 
and from actual knowledge by visiting the said school, they are confident that they 
are making rapid improvement.' 

"A recommendation was added that ten dollars be allowed for each one of the 
children 'under the particular care of the Grand Lodge,' to be expended in supplying 
them with proper clothing. 

"The working arrangement between the New York Free School and the Grand Lodge 
received the endorsement of the Board of Trustees of the Society on June 4, 1810. 

"Suggestions submitted by the committee for raising a special school fund were by 
vote of the Grand Lodge referred to 'the Worshipful Masters of the different Lodges 
in this city, with full power to revise and alter the plan proposed or offer any other in 
lieu thereof to this Grand Lodge, and whenever they shall be ready to report, they 
inform the Most Worshipful, the Grand Master thereof, that a special Lodge may be 
called for the purpose of considering the said report, and determining thereon.' 

* * * 


"On Sept. 6, 1809, this committee composed of Masters reported endorsing the plan 
for educating fifty poor children whose fathers were or had been Freemasons. Each of 
the twenty-two Lodges then active in the city was to pay ten dollars per annum. 

"In a report under date of June 3, 1812, the Masonic School Committee 'suggested to 
the consideration/of this Grand Lodge the propriety of establishing a school on the 
Lancaster plan to be under the entire management of this Grand Lodge.' This 
suggestion was not adopted. 

"On Dec. 1, 1813, W. Brother Vanderbilt, from the School Committee, reported that 
The number of scholars of the different Lodges, and of the Grand Lodge, were 
entirely filled up, amounting in the whole to fifty, and that the children were making 
suitable improvement in their learning, and recommended the different Lodges to 
provide the children they sent to the school with comfortable clothing.' The Grand 
Lodge approved the recommendation and authorized the School Committee to raise 
money by individual contributions 'for the clothing of the Masonic Charity Scholars.' 

"In the winter of 1815, the School Committee suggested that, 'as the inclement season 
of the year is approaching, if every Lodge could spare the sum of sixteen dollars, for 
purchasing a pair of shoes, one pair of stockings, an overcoat and hat for each scholar, 
it would not only add credit to the fraternity, but give considerable relief to those 
distressed children.' 

"At the start, the Free School had been supported entirely by voluntary subscriptions 
and donations. As the Legislature began to recognize the value of the institution it 
granted sums of money, and allotted a part from the State School Fund. The amount 
raised by voluntary subscriptions diminished year by year, and the amount received 
from the state and city increased proportionately. 

"About the end of the year 1817, the support of the school by the Masonic Fraternity 
ceased. The reason given was that the Free School was now firmly established and 
under the patronage and supervision of the State. 

"The co-operation of the fraternity with the School Society was an important factor, 
morally as well as financially, in shaping: the character of the undertaking. It did 
much to develop the spirit of democracy which gave New York City its great 
common school system.” (Pages 92-95.) 

H.L. Haywood. 


SYMBOLISM OF THE THREE DEGREES, by Oliver Day Street. Blue Cloth, 

$1.25. Published by Geo. H. Doran, New York City. May be purchased through Book 
Department of the National Masonic Research Society. 

IT has been the misfortune of Masonic books in this land to be published, with few 
exceptions, by individuals or by private or small concerns, often from worn plates, 
and with poor bindings. This condition has been responsible as much as any other fact 
for the general character of Masonic literature which, in the lump, and ignoring a few 
scattered shining exceptions, has been a shame and a scandal. Any man who has gone 
through a Masonic library with its shelves filled up by antiquated badly edited books 
of a low grade of scholarship, and innocent of literary value (this is speaking in the 
large), has not needed to seek farther for one of the principal reasons why Masons 
have not read more about Masonry. It is a wonder that Masons have read as much as 
they have. 

Such individuals or small concerns as have produced Masonic books have often done 
so at a loss or else have been unable to advertise or otherwise market the titles, 
thereby being unable to give the authors a fair reward. This state of things has served 
to discourage competent writers who are no more able than men in other lines to work 
for nothing, and should not be expected to; has left open the doors for ill informed 
scribes and for cranks, and thus has been indirectly responsible for the general lack of 
understanding of Masonry among Masons. 

The obvious way out was to persuade some of the large and responsible publishing 
houses of the nation to enter the Masonic field, not as a chance for commercial 
exploitation, but as a legitimate method for bringing into existence the kind of 
literature we deserve. To that end the National Masonic Research Society last winter 
sent its editor-in-chief to visit a number of the most responsible concerns in the East 

in order to lay before them the general situation and to offer the co-operation of the 
Society. He conferred with the officials of six of the best companies in person and 
corresponded with several others, in each case proffering the assistance of this 
Society to insure high standards of authorship, to decide on new titles most badly 
needed, and to acquaint the Craft and Masonic authors together with the new 
arrangement, and all this without making any exclusive agreements or other 
conditions that would shut out or discourage individuals or small concerns. 

The first of the large publishing houses to avail itself of this opportunity has been the 
George H. Doran Company, of New York. That firm has already launched the 
National Masonic Library and placed three or four titles on the market, of which more 
anon. The volumes of this series are uniformly bound, but may be purchased 
separately. In paper, print, binding, editing and general make-up they are on a par 
with high class works in other fields; in price they are lower than the same books 
could be published by firms with less in the way of resources. One of the most 
satisfactory results of this arrangement is that authors will be paid the usual royalties, 
thus making it possible for the first time for the Craft to command the use of its best 
minds and writers. 

It was an appropriate thing that the first volume to be marketed in the National 
Masonic Library was Brother Oliver Day Street's S7ymioolism of the Three Degrees, 
a book formerly published by this Society, and already standard. Brother Street's book 
has made its own way to the front. The matter was first delivered as lectures before 
various Masonic bodies in Alabama; was then published serially in THE BUILDER; 
was next published in an inconspicuous way by the Society, the demand for which 
was so steady that a second edition was printed, and at last, because of the ever 
increasing demand for it, was made over to the Doran Company for inclusion in the 
new National Masonic Library. 

The new edition has passed under Brother Street's revision; carries an index; and 
includes a new introduction by the editor of THE BUILDER. It is invaluable for use 
by Study Clubs, especially in the beginning of their work, and should be carefully 
studied by every brother who has any share in conferring degrees. It is scholarly but 
simple, adequate but not too long, and serves admirably to give one his first glimpse 
into the height and depth and length and breadth of our marvelous Ritual. 


THE BUILDER is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its 
contributors writes over his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. 
Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research 
Society, as such, does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over 
against another, but offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, 
leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits. 

The Question Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the 
Society at all times. Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited 
from our members, particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are 
following our Study Club course. The Society is now receiving from fifty to one 
hundred inquiries each week; it is manifestly impossible to publish many of them in 
this Department. 


Reading the last few installments of "Chapters of Masonic History" in the Study Club 
I get perplexed to understand the difference between a lodge, a gild, a fraternity, and a 
craft. Won't Brother Haywood please make this clear in one of his future chapters ? 

P. S., Missouri. 

The word "lodge" was sometimes used by the Operative Masons to signify the room 
or hut in which the workmen assembled, and sometimes of the organized body of the 
workmen themselves. "Gild" was used in a very loose way throughout the Middle 
Ages, but was properly the recognized organization of workmen employed in any 
given trade in a community; many gilds had their own officers, courts, and laws, 
regulations, and customs, and in some cases were almost identical with town 
government. A gild was a local organization and had no rights outside the town's 
range of official control. Individual Masons might be at work in a town without 
having a lodge; and a lodge might be in operation without being a gild, or having 
anything to do with a gild. Gilds were sometimes called "mysteries," "societies," 
"associations," or "companies." A present day analogy so far as this looseness of 
meaning is concerned is furnished us by our word "company"; we speak of a 
company of persons at i public meeting; a grocers' company; of entertaining 
"company" in one's home; of John Smith & Company, etc.; and we use other words to 
the same general end, as "concern," "enterprise," "firm," and many others. 

"Fraternity" was used during the Middle Ages in the same broad way, but was more 
generally applied to associations of persons organized for purposes larger than trade, 
usually of a religious or charitable character. "Sodality," "brotherhood," and "gild" 
were similarly used. A "craft" signified all workmen engaged in any one trade or 
calling; particularly those engaged in some form of handiwork, as “The craft of 
tinners,” “the craft of carpenters,” and so on. In “Chapters of Masonic History” an 
attempt has been made to let the context show the meaning intended each time in the 
use of each of these terms. The most important distinction to keep in mind is that 
between "Freemasons" and "Gild Masons"; the latter were those working inside the 
limits of some one town, and belonging to the local gild; the former were gangs or 
lodges of men employed on cathedrals and other ecclesiastical buildings, and 
therefore free to move about from place to place. There has been much debate about 
this point, but it appears reasonably certain that some such general difference between 
the two branches of the craft of builders must have existed. 

* * * 


Can you inform us through your pages if President Coolidge is a Protestant? The 
question has come up in our Study Club. I hope the inquiry will not seem 
disrespectful of our national chief, who is much admired among us. 

R.H.H., Illinois. 

The information sent to THE BUILDER by a reliable correspondent is that President 
Coolidge is not a member of any church but attends the Congregational church with 
Mrs. Coolidge. He is not a member of the Craft, but is friendly disposed toward it, as 
witness his helping to lay the cornerstone of the Washington Memorial. 

* * * 


Please give me the name of the publisher of Prolegomena to the Study of Greek 
Religion, by Jane Ellen Harrison, several times referred to in THE BUILDER. 

H. J. S., California. 

The copy used by us is of the second edition. It was published by the Cambridge 
University Press. Cambridge. England; the price was four dollars. G.P. Putnam’s 
Sons, New York City, are American agents for this firm. 


Please recommend a list of books on Masonic history for a beginner. Put them in the 
order for the proper reading of them. What I want is something like the graded 
lessons we had in school. 

M. Y., Oregon. 

Ye editor's little Vest Pocket History of Freemasonry was designed for the 
kindergarten grade; follow it with Story of the Craft by Vibert; Symbolical Masonry, 
Haywood; The Builders, Newton; Freemasonry Before Existence of Grand Lodges, 
Vibert; The Evolution of Freemasonry, Darrah; Concise History of Freemasonry, 
Gould; Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry, Clegg; The History of 
Freemasonry, Gould. Your "graded lesson" idea is a good one. Many titles might be 
added, but it is believed that the above list, if it is carefully followed, will put any 
student into possession of an authentic and valuable knowledge of the history of the 
Craft. Keep us posted about your progress. 

* * * 


Please inform me through THE BUILDER if the new commander of the American 
Legion belongs with us. Just now I can't lay my hand on his name, but you will be 
able to supply it. 

E. K. H., Ohio. 

Brother John R. Quinn received his degrees in Delano Lodge, No. 309, F. & A. M., 
California, in January, 191 1. He served his lodge as Junior Warden in 1921. He is 
also a member of Pyramid, No. 11, Ancient Egyptian Order of Sciots. He is a 
graduate of the University of California; belongs to the Democratic party; and is an 

* * * 


Will you please be so kind as to give me at your earliest convenience the following 
information: When was the Roman Catholic Church founded and where? Who was 
the first pope? In what book or books can I find this information' 

B. L. McK., New Mexico. 

The best general source of information on subjects connected with the Roman Church 
is the Catholic Encyclopaedia, to be found in almost every public library; to this may 
be added A Catholic Dictionary, Addis & Arnold, published by B. Herder, 1917; and 
Question Boo, Conway, published by the Paulist Press, 120 West 60th street, New 
York City, reviewed in THE BUILDER, July 1923, page 218. All these works appear 
to have been officially sanctioned. It is impossible to give your first question a 
definite answer because the Roman Church came into existence through a gradual 
evolution. In the beginning churches were small and widely scattered, and control 
was almost entirely local; after a time, when the new religion had made headway in 
the countries about the west end of the Mediterranean, they became grouped in 
districts and usually placed under the control of a bishop, the word meaning 
"overseer"; there were exceptions to this, of course, some local churches maintaining 
their independence. The power and influence wielded by the bishops became in time 
more or less centralized in the bishop of Rome, as was natural, owing to Rome's 

supremacy among cities. The word "pope" was originally a childish name for "father" 
and was used indiscriminately of all priests a custom still in vogue among Greek 
Catholics in many localities. The Christian Church as a whole became divided into 
East and West when the Roman Empire split, and customs and traditions differed 
much as between the rival branches. In the West, of which Rome continued to be the 
center, "pope" came to be used as a title for all bishops; it was Pope Gregory VII, at 
the Roman Council of 1073, who first formally forbade any but the Bishop of Rome 
to employ the title. It is impossible to name the first pope because it is undecided just 
when we are to think of the papacy, strictly so called, as beginning, but the Roman 
Church itself cherishes the tradition that Saint Peter was the first pope, and reigned in 
67, being followed in order by St. Linus, 67-79; St. Anacletus, 79-90 etc. The first 
definitely fixed date of a Bishop of Rome is St. Soter, 165-74. 

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I note that in your explanation to the picture of King Solomon and the Iron- worker, in 
your May issue, you state ".... but the King waves them all back in order to seat the 
toiler on the throne. It is an artist's conception of the principal idea symbolized by the 
Masonic apron." Unfortunately this is not correct and I am glad that you did not add 
to it by reprinting the very improbable prose version of the so-called "Rabbinical 
Tradition" on which the picture is based. 

Will you let me quote first some particulars relative to the history of this picture 
which appear in the Transactions for 1906-07 of the Lodge of Research of Leicester, 
England, from the pen of Bro. C. A. Brockaway, of Brooklyn, N.Y., who writes: 

"In April, 1859, Mr. Joseph Harrison, Jr., of Philadelphia, responded to the toast 'The 
Mechanic Arts' at a banquet in his city. In the course of his remarks Mr. Harrison 
said, 'The Great Jehovah himself was the first great mechanic; and when our first 
parent was compelled to earn his bread in the sweat of his face, so stern a necessity 
compelled him to turn mechanic, and he thereby became the first human promoter of 
the mechanical arts. Adam could not till the soil with his bare hands, and we can 
imagine him pointing a stick against the rough surface of a stone and thus, by 
mechanical means, making the first rude instrument to aid him in his new vocation.' 
After referring to Noah, the Tabernacle builders, Solomon and Hiram as mechanics, 
Mr. Harrison went on to say: 'I remember reading a story in my early boyhood that 
impressed itself so strongly on my mind that I have never forgotten it. I wish I could 
find it now. I do not remember the exact words, but the matter ran somewhat in this 
wise' - and then in his own words Mr. Harrison repeated the legend of the Iron- worker 
and King Solomon. 

"Mr. Harrison was a mechanic whose inventive skill and executive ability had won 
him fame as an engineer and a very large fortune. After a twelve year stay in Russia, 
where he built and operated for the Czar a railroad from St. Petersburg to Moscow, he 
returned to the States in 1854 and commissioned Christian Schussele to portray on 
canvas the legend of the Ironworker and King Solomon, which he had treasured in his 
mind from boyhood. The painting, about three by four feet in size, was completed in 
1864 and hung in the gallery of the Harrison mansion in Rittenhouse Square, 
Philadelphia. It drew forth such enthusiastic admiration that in 1871 Mr. Harrison 
engaged Bro. John Sartain to make a steel engraving from it for distribution among 
his friends. The size of this plate is 25 by 36 inches and is now the property of his 
son, Mr. Theodore Harrison." 

Then follows a description of the coloring, etc. 

"The smith's wife and child (in the lower corner of the picture) were injected into the 
legend by Mr. Harrison, no doubt for dramatic effect, in a poem which he wrote to 
accompany the painting, which is much to be preferred to the prose version. 

"After making the plate for Mr. Harrison, Sartain engraved a much smaller one for 
Wm. A. Bradley & Co., Philadelphia, and this plate is now the property of the Macoy 
Publishing and Masonic Supply Co., of New York. This small engraving is the one 
commonly seen." 

Mr. Brockaway concludes his article by giving Mr. Harrison's poem, which has none 
of those statements referred to above as highly improbable, that are made in the prose 
version. Such a one for example is that in explaining his seeming intrusion the smith 
quoted the legend of the marriage of Vulcan and Venus as a reason why the King 
should honor him. Even if a man in his position in those times was sufficiently well 
acquainted with the traditions of the Roman pantheon, it is incredible that a devout 
Hebrew or Phoenician would show so little judgment as to refer approvingly to the 
gods of another nation, foreign to that of the ruler who could condemn him to death 
without a hearing, and in the temple of that ruler’s deity. Solomon had not embarked 
on the diplomatic career that ended so disastrously for his nation and himself, which 
involved so many foreign wives with their appropriate forms of worship. It is also the 
case that the Roman nation at that time was still too young to have built up the 
pantheon we have become familiar with in our classical reading, though it is hard to 
limit what they might have borrowed from Greece and Etruria. 

Your own error lies in saying that the King "waves away the other workers to seat the 
toiler on the throne." The seat of honor to be used by whomsoever should be found 
worthy was tweet to the throne, and therein we see the smith already seated when the 
King and the invited guests arrived. The hand waving is done simply to stay sudden 
death to the smith while he explains his intrusion. You will see, too, that the picture is 
by no means "an artist's conception of the principal idea symbolized by the Masonic 
apron," but is simply a portraiture of the rabbinical legend, as remembered by his 
patron, Mr. Harrison. N. W. J. Haydon, Canada. 

We were glad to receive this letter concerning an error in the May 1923 issue; such 
corrections are always thrice welcome. The picture referred to by Bro. Haydon, who, 
by the way, is now an Associate Editor of THE BUILDER, was used as a 
frontispiece, and was reproduced from a copy sent in by a member. 


Your August number suggested two personal references in which you may be 
interested. Bro. Haydon's communication of poor old Hinton's calculations (page 255) 
reminded me of his odd and interesting character. He was a Scotchman, I think, well 
educated, with scholarly tastes, and a keen mind, but a terrible bore. He was an albino 
with a great mane of snow white hair, and pink, myopic eyes. He was keenly 
interested in politics and a fiery protagonist of free trade which he was eager to argue 
about on every possible or impossible occasion. For the rest, he was a mathematician 
by instinct and training - a strange and awesome being to my non-mathematical mind 
- and by profession a musician. A few weeks before his untimely death he called upon 
me with reference to his desire to be initiated into University Fodge, a request that 
was not a little embarrassing, and during a two hours' conversation he unfolded his 
mathematical exposition of the V.O.T.S.F., which is given in outline in THE 
BUIFDER as above mentioned. There was much more to it than is written down, and 
I was very much interested and urged him to write it all out and have it published, 
which he promised to do, and possibly this short article is the result. One cannot help 
thinking what great latent possibilities for Masonic research in a field but little 
trodden were here indicated. Had he lived and become a Mason and been well 
directed, he might have accomplished something of value. 

The other reference was to Prof. Wolfstieg, whose bibliography you reviewed (page 
250.) Perhaps you might like to use this information to fill in the bottom of a column 
somewhere or other. 

Dr. August Wolfstieg was the librarian of the Prussian National Collection in Berlin 
from which position he retired some four years ago, after thirty-eight years of service. 
Before his retirement he had supervised the removal of the library to new premises 
and had re-classified it on modern scientific principles. It had become under his 
supervision one of the greatest juristic libraries in the world, being particularly rich in 
its collection of parliamentary publications of all civilized nations. He also 

accomplished a great work in his country through the library school which he 
conducted for fourteen years. 

His services to the Craft were of the greatest importance. He was a collaborator in the 
publications of the Comenius Society (see THE BUILDER, January 1923, page 30), 
which has is issued many important works on Masonic symbolism. He was the 
compiler of the great Bibliography of Freemasonry in three volumes, reviewed in the 
August number. His latest work was in five volumes under the title of Werden and 
Wesen der Freimaurerei (Origin and Nature of Freemasonry). The first three volumes 
deal with "The Origin and Development" of the Craft, and form a clear and 
beautifully written history. They were issued in 1920, and two years later the second 
part dealing with the symbolism and philosophy of Freemasonry appeared. The whole 
work is a monument of the most painstaking scholarship. 

This great work had been completed during his retirement to his home town of 
Wolfenbuttel, near Brunswick, but it was not his fate to see the last volumes when 
they were issued from the press. In May 1922 he wrote in the introduction to the 
fourth volume, "Since the author is a great sufferer, and half blind, Mr. Alfons 
Dirksen in Berlin had the goodness to read the proof and get together the index, for 
which I heartily thank him." And at the end of June of the same year, his publisher, 
Alfred Unger of Berlin, adds this "In Memoriam" at the commencement of the last 
volume: "My dear Friend, August Wolfstieg, severely tested by long physical 
suffering is permitted to suffer no more. Nor has he been permitted to live to see the 
appearance of these two volumes, which under the weighty title of The Philosophy of 
Freemasonry, which he himself selected quite recently, was to have been the close of 
his imposing work. The collected proof sheets were still in his hands, when, on the 
27th May, 1922, death released him. In his collected work, Origin and Nature of 
Freemasonry, now in five volumes, and standing alone in Masonic literature, he has 
erected for himself the most splendid monument, securing a lasting fame for himself, 
and an enduring good for his grateful descendants." 

It is to be hoped that this great work will some day be made available for the Masons 
of the English speaking world. 

W. Harvey McNairn, Canada. 

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Masonic education is now riding the crest of the wave. More manuscripts have been 
submitted to THE BUILDER during the past thirty days than in any previous three 
months. When a brother becomes interested enough to prepare an article it proves that 
the bug is getting into his system. Also, it appears that more new Masonic books are 
now under way, either in process of writing or publishing, than ever before. May the 
good work keep up. Some day we shall have a literate membership. 

* * * 

Fidelity Lodge, Cleveland, Ohio, has changed its name to Warren G. Harding Lodge. 

* * * 

A number of lodges are now presenting each newly raised brother with a year's 
membership in the National Masonic Research Society - Santa Paula Lodge, Santa 
Paula, Cal., for example. Inasmuch as the Society is an officially sanctioned 
noncommercial association of Master Masons, there is nothing in that to violate 
Masonic etiquette. 

Bro. Robert I. Clegg has gone abroad to visit places of especial interest to Masonic 
writers. Good luck to you, Bro. Clegg, and a profitable trip. No man is better 
deserving of such good fortune. 

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The annual index for 1923, covering all items in every issue of the year, will be ready 
in two weeks. Heretofore an index has been mailed with each December copy, but for 
the sake of economy this year, copies will be sent only to those requesting it. Send in 
your name if you wish a copy.